Watergun, Super Soaker ™
The Larami Corporation of Philadelphia, PA patented an ingenious new type of watergun. It uses a high-pressure reservoir partially filled with air under pressure. This HYDRAULIC ACCUMULATOR had never been used in toy waterguns before.
A hand-operated piston forces first air, then water into the high-pressure reservoir (the circular ball.) Pulling the trigger releases a stream that can go 50 feet!
The trigger is a spring-loaded pincher which holds the vinyl tube shut. If you pump too much, pressure opens the trigger-valve and water dribbles out the nozzle, long before the high-presssure areas would burst.
Wobble Plate Piston Pump
This pump has pistons in a stationary block, and a rotating wobble plate. There might be 4, 5, or more pistons (usually an odd number are used) — only two shown here.
Each piston has a valve within it and another valve behind it. Fluid comes in on the wobble plate side (on the bottom left in this drawing) and exits under pressure in the back (on the right here).
The pistons are pushed against the wobble plate with large springs. A pair of smaller springs force the valves (small metal balls) closed. The spring inside the piston is fairly weak, since only suction is used to force it open.
This type of pump can develop incredible pressure — 10,000 P.S.I. or more. It is commonly used for low-volume applications. Hand-operated wobble pumps were used as emergency fuel pumps on some early aircraft.
Compare this pump, also known as a “wabble” plate pump, to the radial piston pump, swash plate pump, and bent axis pump.
Wolfhart Principle Pump
This is a type of axial piston pump which has a unique direct transformation of a piston force into torque (or vice-versa), with no bearings within the piston actuating mechanism. The stroke motion is accomplished without the normally associated oscillating mass. The dome-headed pistons, piston block and drive shaft are all one piece. The only other moving part is the free-floating cylinder drum, which has no bearing and is driven (guided laterally) by the co-rotating pistons.
The inventor has found that 5 degrees for the angle between the two rotating parts is the optimal angle to provide an operable pump, but not enough to require the use of bearings.
Although this pump has no oscillating motion (when viewed from a stationary reference system), it works as though it does. This is illustrated in these two matching video clips of a working pump with its outer housing removed. The upper clip shows the view in the stationary reference system, which shows that both moving parts just rotate. In the lower clip the view is as though the camera were orbiting the pump at a matched rotational speed. By using this view, it is as if we are “within” the co-rotating system (sort of like observing other planets in our solar system from our own, which is also revolving). In this way can we observe the oscillating motion between a piston and its cylinder.
(Note: A central pin and spring keeps the cylinder block in position on the “control surface” (where the ports are) when the pump is not being operated or is running without any pressure. The spring assemblies seen encircling the pistons in some photos are not necessary for effective pump operation. They hold the piston heads in place, but only up to a limited amount of force. If a piston seizes in a cylinder, the spring will oscillate until the piston loosens up or the pump is stopped. Even with a stuck piston head, the pump can usually continue to operate at reduced capacity.)