R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z

بدضعیفمتوسطخوبعالی (بدون رتبه)
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R

RBOB (Reformulated Gasoline BIendstock for Oxygenate Blending).

A motor gasoline blending component which, when blended with a specified type and percentage of oxygenate, meets the definition of reformulated gasoline.

Refinery.

An installation that manufactures finished petroleum products from crude oil, unfinished oils, natural gas liquids, other hydrocarbons, and oxygenates.

Refinery Input, Crude Oil.

Total crude oil (domestic plus foreign) input to crude oil distillation units and other refinery processing units (cokers, etc.).

Refinery Input, Total.

The raw materials and intermediate materials processed at refineries to produce finished petroleum products. They include crude oil, products of

natural gas processing plants, unfinished oils, other hydrocarbons and oxygenates, motor gasoline and aviation gasoline blending components and finished petroleum products.

Refinery Production.

Petroleum products produced at a refinery or blending plant. Published production of these products equals refinery production minus refinery input.

Negative production will occur when the amount of a product produced during the month is less than the amount of that same product that is reprocessed (input) or reclassified to become another product during the same month. Refinery production of unfinished oils, and motor and aviation gasoline blending components appear on a net basis under refinery input.

RefineryYield.

Refinery yield (expressed as a percentage) represents the percent of finished product produced from input of crude oil and net input of unfinished oils. It is calculated by dividing the sum of crude oil and net unfinished input into the individual net production of finished products. Before calculating the yield for finished motor gasoline, the input of natural gas liquids, other hydrocarbons and oxygenates, and net input of motor gasoline blending components must be subtracted from the net production of finished motor gasoline. Before calculating the yield for finished aviation gasoline, input of aviation gasoline blending components must be subtracted from the net production of finished aviation gasoline.

Reformulated Gasoline.

See Motor Gasoline (Finished).

Residual Fuel Oil.

A general classification for the heavier oils, known as No. 5 and No. 6 fuel oils, that remain after the distillate fuel oils and lighter hydrocarbons are distilled away in refinery operations. It conforms to ASTM Specifications D 396 and D 975 and

Federal Specification VV-F-815C. No. 5, a residual fuel oil of medium viscosity, is also known as Navy Special and is defined in Military Specification MIL-F-859E, including Amendment 2 (NATO Symbol F-770). It is used in steam-powered vessels in government service and inshore powerplants. No. 6 fuel oil includes Bunker C fuel oil and is used for the production of electric power, space heating, vessel bunkering, and various industrial purposes.

Residuum.

Residue from crude oil after distilling off all but the heaviest components, with a boiling range greater than 1000º F.

Road Oil.

Any heavy petroleum oil, including residual asphaltic oil used as a dust pallative and surface treatment on roads and highways. It is generally produced in six grades from 0, the most liquid, to 5, the most viscous.


S

Shell Storage Capacity.

The design capacity of a petroleum storage tank which is always greater than or equal to working storage capacity.

Special Naphthas.

All finished products within the naphtha boiling range that are used as paint thinners, cleaners, or solvents. These products are refined to a specified flash point. Special naphthas include all commercial hexane and cleaning solvents conforming to

ASTM Specification D1836 and D484, respectively. Naphthas to be blended or marketed as motor gasoline or aviation gasoline, or that are to be used as petrochemical and synthetic natural gas (SNG) feedstocks are excluded.

Steam (Purchased).

Steam, purchased for use by a refinery, that was not generated from within the refinery complex.

Still Gas (Refinery Gas).

Any form or mixture of gases produced in refineries by distillation, cracking, reforming, and other processes. The principal constituents are

methane, ethane, ethylene, normal butane, butylene, propane, propylene, etc. Still gas is used as a refinery fuel and a petrochemical feedstock. The conversion factor is 6

million BTU’s per fuel oil equivalent barrel.

Stock Change.

The difference between stocks at the beginning of the reporting period and stocks at the end of the reporting period. Note: A negative number indicates a decrease (i.e., a drawdown) in stocks and a positive number indicates an increase (i.e., a buildup) in stocks during the reporting period.

Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR).

Petroleum stocks maintained by the Federal Government for use during periods of major supply interruption.

Sulfur.

A yellowish nonmetallic element, sometimes known as “brimstone.” It is present at various levels of concentration in many fossil fuels whose combustion releases sulfur compounds that are considered harmful to the environment. Some of the most commonly used fossil fuels are categorized according to their sulfur content, with lower sulfur fuels usually selling at a higher price.

Note: No. 2 Distillate fuel is currently reported as having either a 0.05 percent or lower sulfur level for on-highway vehicle use or a greater than 0.05 percent sulfur level for

off-highway use, home heating oil, and commercial and industrial uses. Residual fuel, regardless of use, is classified as having either no more than 1 percent sulfur or greater than 1 percent sulfur. Coal is also classified as being low- sulfur at concentrations of 1 percent or less or high-sulfur at concentrations greater than 1 percent.

Supply.

The components of petroleum supply are field production, refinery production, imports, and net receipts when calculated on a PAD District basis.

T

TAME (Tertiary amyl methyl ether) (CH3)2(C2H5)COCH3.

An oxygenate blend stock formed by the catalytic etherfication of isoamylene with methanol.

Tank Farm.

An installation used by gathering and trunk pipeline companies, crude oil producers, and terminal operators (except refineries) to store crude oil.

Tanker and Barge.

Vessels that transport crude oil or petroleum products. Data are reported for movements between PAD Districts; from a PAD District to the Panama

Canal; or from the Panama Canal to a PAD District.

TBA (Tertiary butyl alcohol) (CH3)3COH.

An alcohol primarily used as a chemical feedstock, a solvent or feedstock for isobutylene production for MTBE; produced as a co-product of propylene oxide production or by direct hydration of isobutylene.

Thermal Cracking.

A refining process in which heat and pressure are used to break down, rearrange, or combine hydrocarbon molecules. Thermal cracking includes gas

oil, visbreaking, fluid coking, delayed coking, and other thermal cracking processes (e.g., flexicoking). See individual categories for definition.

Toluene (C6H5CH3).

Colorless liquid of the aromatic group of petroleum hydrocarbons, made by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthas containing methyl cyclohexane. A high-octane gasoline-blending agent, solvent, and chemical intermediate, base for TNT.


U

Unaccounted for Crude Oil.

Represents the arithmetic difference between the calculated supply and the calculated disposition of crude oil. The calculated supply is the sum of crude oil production plus imports minus changes in crude oil stocks. The calculated disposition of crude oil is the sum of crude oil input to refineries, crude oil exports, crude oil burned as fuel, and crude oil losses.

Unfinished Oils.

All oils requiring further processing, except those requiring only mechanical blending. Unfinished oils are produced by partial refining of crude

oil and include naphthas and lighter oils, kerosene and light gas oils, heavy gas oils, and residuum.

Unfractionated Streams.

Mixtures of unsegregated natural gas liquid components excluding, those in plant condensate. This product is extracted from natural gas.

United States.

The United States is defined as the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

V

Vacuum Distillation.

Distillation under reduced pressure (less the atmospheric) which lowers the boiling temperature of the liquid being distilled. This technique with its relatively low temperatures prevents cracking or decomposition of the charge stock.

Visbreaking.

A thermal cracking process in which heavy atmospheric or vacuum-still bottoms are cracked at moderate temperatures to increase production of distillate products and reduce viscosity of the distillation residues.

W

Wax.

A solid or semi-solid material consisting of a mixture of hydrocarbons obtained or derived from petroleum fractions, or through a Fischer-Tropsch type process, in which the straight chained paraffin series predominates. This includes all marketable wax, whether crude or refined, with a congealing point (ASTM D 938) between 100 and 200o F and a maximum oil content (ASTM D 3235) of 50 weight percent.

Working Storage Capacity.

The difference in volume between the maximum safe fill capacity and the quantity below which pump suction is ineffective (bottoms).

X

Xylene C6H4(CH3)2.

Colorless liquid of the aromatic group of hydrocarbons made the catalytic reforming of certain naphthenic petroleum fractions. Used as high-octane motor and aviation gasoline blending agents, solvents, chemical intermediates. Isomers are metaxylene, orthoxylene, paraxylene.

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