O-P-Q

بدضعیفمتوسطخوبعالی (بدون رتبه)
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O

OPEC.

The acronym for the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, that have organized for the purpose of negotiating with oil companies on matters of oil production, prices and future concession rights. Current members are Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. The Neutral Zone between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia is considered part of OPEC.

Prior to January 1, 1993, Ecuador was a member of OPEC.

Prior to January 1995, Gabon was a member of OPEC.

OPRG (Oxygenated Fuels Program Reformulated Gasoline).

A reformulated gasoline which is intended for use in an oxygenated fuels program control area during an oxygenated fuels program control period.

Operable Capacity.

The amount of capacity that, at the beginning of the period, is in operation; not in operation and not under active repair, but capable of being placed in

operation within 30 days; or not in operation but under active repair that can be completed within 90 days. Operable capacity is the sum of the operating and idle

capacity and is measured in barrels per calendar day or barrels per stream day.

Operating Capacity.

The component of operable capacity that is in operation at the beginning of the period.

Operable Utilization Rate.

Represents the utilization of the atmospheric crude oil distillation units. The rate is calculated by dividing the gross input to these units by the

operable refining capacity of the units.

Operating Utilization Rate.

Represents the utilization of the atmospheric crude oil distillation units. The rate is calculated by dividing the gross input to these units by the

operating refining capacity of the units.

Other Finished.

See Motor Gasoline (Finished).

Other Hydrocarbons.

Materials received by a refinery and consumed as a raw material. Includes hydrogen, coal tar derivatives, gilsonite, and natural gas received by the refinery for reforming into hydrogen. Natural gas to be used as fuel is excluded.

Other Oils Equal To or Greater Than 401o F.

See Petrochemical Feedstocks.

Other Oxygenates.

Other aliphatic alcohols and aliphatic ethers intended for motor gasoline blending (e.g., isopropyl ether (IPE) or n-propanol).

Oxygenated Gasoline.

See Motor Gasoline (Finished).

Oxygenates.

Substances which, when added to gasoline, increase the amount of oxygen in that gasoline blend. Ethanol, Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE), Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE), and methanol are common oxygenates.

Fuel Ethanol.

Blends of up to 10 percent by volume anhydrous ethanol (200 proof) (commonly referred to as the “gasohol waiver”).

Methanol.

Blends of methanol and gasoline-grade tertiary butyl alcohol (GTBA) such that the total oxygen content does not exceed 3.5 percent by weight and the ratio of methanol to GTBA is less than or equal to 1. It is also specified that this blended fuel must meet ASTM volatility specifications (commonly referred to as the “ARCO” waiver). Blends of up to 5.0 percent by volume methanol with a minimum of 2.5 percent by volume cosolvent alcohols having a carbon number of 4 or less (i.e., ethanol,

propanol, butanol, and/or GTBA). The total oxygen must not exceed 3.7 percent by weight, and the blend must meet ASTM volatility specifications as well as phase separation and alcohol purity specifications (commonly referred to as the “DuPont” waiver).

MTBE (Methyl tertiary butyl ether).

Blends up to 15.0 percent by volume MTBE which must meet the ASTM D4814 specifications. Blenders must take precautions that the blends are not used as base gasolines for other oxygenated blends (commonly referred to as the “Sun” waiver).

P

Pentanes Plus.

A mixture of hydrocarbons, mostly pentanes and heavier, extracted from natural gas. Includes isopentane, natural gasoline, and plant condensate.

Persian Gulf.

The countries that comprise the Persian Gulf are: Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.

Petrochemical Feedstocks.

Chemical feedstocks derived from petroleum principally for the manufacture of chemicals, synthetic rubber, and a variety of plastics. The categories reported are “Naphtha Less Than 401o F” and “Other Oils Equal To or Greater Than 401o F.”

Naphtha Less Than 401o F.

A naphtha with a boiling range of less than 401o F that is intended for use as a petrochemical feedstock.

Other Oils Equal To or Greater Than 401o F

Oils with a boiling range equal to or greater than 401o F that are intended for use as a petrochemical feedstock.

Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) Districts.

Geographic aggregations of the 50 States and the District of Columbia into five districts by the Petroleum Administration for Defense in 1950. These districts were originally defined during World War II for purposes of administering oil allocation.

Petroleum Coke.

A residue high in carbon content and low in hydrogen that is the final product of thermal decomposition in the condensation process in cracking. This product is reported as marketable coke or catalyst coke. The conversion is 5 barrels (of 42 U.S. gallons each) per short ton. Coke from petroleum has a heating value of 6.024 million Btu per barrel.

Marketable Coke.

Those grades of coke produced in delayed or fluid cokers which may be recovered as relatively pure carbon. This “green” coke may be sold as is or further purified by calcining.

Catalyst Coke.

In many catalytic operations (e.g., catalytic cracking) carbon is deposited on the catalyst, thus deactivating the catalyst. The catalyst is reactivated by burning off the carbon, which is used as a fuel in the refining process. This carbon or coke is not recoverable in a concentrated form.

Petroleum Products.

Petroleum products are obtained from the processing of crude oil (including lease condensate), natural gas, and other hydrocarbon compounds. Petroleum products include unfinished oils, liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type jet fuel, kerosene, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, petrochemical feedstocks, special naphthas, lubricants, waxes, petroleum coke, asphalt, road oil, still gas, and miscellaneous products.

Pipeline (Petroleum).

Crude oil and product pipelines used to transport crude oil and petroleum products respectively, (including interstate, intrastate, and intracompany pipelines) within the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

Plant Condensate.

One of the natural gas liquids, mostly pentanes and heavier hydrocarbons, recovered and separated as liquids at gas inlet separators or scrubbers in

processing plants.

Processing Gain.

The volumetric amount by which total output is greater than input for a given period of time. This difference is due to the processing of crude oil into products which, in total, have a lower specific gravity than the crude oil processed.

Processing Loss.

The volumetric amount by which total refinery output is less than input for a given period of time. This difference is due to the processing of crude oil into products which, in total, have a higher specific gravity than the crude oil processed.

Product Supplied, Crude Oil.

Crude oil burned on leases and by pipelines as fuel.

Production Capacity.

The maximum amount of product that can be produced from processing facilities.

Products Supplied.

Approximately represents consumption of petroleum products because it measures the disappearance of these products from primary sources, i.e., refineries, natural gas processing plants, blending plants, pipelines, and bulk terminals. In general, product supplied of each product in any given period is computed as follows: field production, plus refinery production, plus imports, plus unaccounted for crude oil, (plus net receipts when calculated on a PAD District basis), minus stock change, minus crude oil losses, minus refinery inputs, minus exports.

Propane (C3H8).

A normally gaseous straight-chain hydrocarbon. It is a colorless paraffinic gas that boils at a temperature of -43.67o F. It is extracted from natural gas

or refinery gas streams. It includes all products designated in ASTM Specification D1835 and Gas Processors Association Specifications for commercial propane and HD-5 propane.

Propylene (C3H6).

An olefinic hydrocarbon recovered from refinery processes or petrochemical processes.

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