F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N

بدضعیفمتوسطخوبعالی (بدون رتبه)
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F

Field Production.

Represents crude oil production on leases, natural gas liquids production at natural gas processing plants, new supply of other hydrocarbons/

oxygenates and motor gasoline blending components, and fuel ethanol blended into finished motor gasoline.

Flexicoking.

A thermal cracking process which converts heavy hydrocarbons such as crude oil, tar sands bitumen, and distillation residues into light hydrocarbons.

Feedstocks can be any pumpable hydrocarbons including those containing high concentrations of sulfur and metals.

Fluid Coking.

A thermal cracking process utilizing the fluidized-solids technique to remove carbon (coke) for continuous conversion of heavy, low-grade oils into lighter products.

Fresh Feed Input.

Represents input of material (crude oil, unfinished oils, natural gas liquids, other hydrocarbons and oxygenates or finished products) to processing units

at a refinery that is being processed (input) into a particular unit for the first time.

Examples:

(1) Unfinished oils coming out of a crude oil distillation unit which are input into a catalytic cracking unit are considered fresh feed to the catalytic cracking unit.

(2) Unfinished oils coming out of a catalytic cracking unit being looped back into the same catalytic cracking unit to be reprocessed are not considered fresh feed.

Fuel Ethanol (C2H5OH).

An anhydrous denatured aliphatic alcohol intended for gasoline blending as described in Oxygenates definition.

Fuels Solvent Deasphalting.

A refining process for removing asphalt compounds from petroleum fractions, such as reduced crude oil. The recovered stream from this process is used to produce fuel products.

G

Gas Oil.

A liquid petroleum distillate having a viscosity intermediate between that of kerosene and lubricating oil. It derives its name from having originally been used in the

manufacture of illuminating gas. It is now used to produce distillate fuel oils and gasoline.

Gasohol.

A blend of finished motor gasoline containing alcohol (generally ethanol but sometimes methanol) at a concentration of 10 percent or less by volume. Data on

gasohol that has at least 2.7 percent oxygen, by weight, and is intended for sale inside carbon monoxide nonattainment areas are included in data on oxygenated gasoline. See Oxygenates.

Gasoline Blending Components.

Naphthas which will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation or motor gasoline (e.g., straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus.

Gross Input to Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Units.

Total input to atmospheric crude oil distillation units. Includes all crude oil, lease condensate, natural gas plant

liquids, unfinished oils, liquefied refinery gases, slop oils, and other liquid hydrocarbons produced from tar sands, gilsonite, and oil shale.

H

Heavy Gas Oil.

Petroleum distillates with an approximate boiling range from 651º to 1000º F.

Hydrogen.

The lightest of all gases, occurring chiefly in combination with oxygen in water; exists also in acids, bases, alcohols, petroleum, and other hydrocarbons.

I

Idle Capacity.

The component of operable capacity that is not in operation and not under active repair, but capable of being placed in operation within 30 days; and capacity notin operation but under active repair that can be completed within 90 days.

Imported Crude Oil Burned As Fuel.

The amount of foreign crude oil burned as a fuel oil, usually as residual fuel oil, without being processed as such. Imported crude oil burned as fuel includes lease condensate and liquid hydrocarbons produced from tar sands, gilsonite, and oil shale.

Imports.

Receipts of crude oil and petroleum products into the 50 States and the District of Columbia from foreign countries, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and other U.S. possessions and territories.

Isobutane.

See Butane.

Isobutylene (C4H8).

An olefinic hydrocarbon recovered from refinery processes or petrochemical processes.

Isohexane (C6H14).

A saturated branch-chain hydrocarbon. It is a colorless liquid that boils at a temperature of 156.2º F.

Isomerization.

A refining process which alters the fundamental arrangement of atoms in the molecule without adding or removing anything from the original material. Used to convert normal butane into isobutene (C4), an alkylation process feedstock, and normal pentane and hexane into isopentane (C5) and isohexane (C6), high-octane gasoline components.

Isopentane.

See Natural Gasoline and Isopentane.

K

Kerosene.

A light petroleum distillate that is used in space heaters, cook stoves, and water heaters and is suitable for use as a light source when burned in wick-fed lamps.

Kerosene has a maximum distillation temperature of 400 degrees Fahrenheit at the 10-percent recovery point, a final boiling point of 572 degrees Fahrenheit, and a

minimum flash point of 100 degrees Fahrenheit. Included are No. 1-K and No. 2-K, the two grades recognized by ASTM Specification D 3699 as well as all other grades of

kerosene called range or stove oil, which have properties similar to those of No. 1 fuel oil. See Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel.

Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel.

A kerosene-based product having a maximum distillation temperature of 400 degrees Fahrenheit at the 10-percent recovery point and a final

maximum boiling point of 572 degrees Fahrenheit and meeting ASTM Specification D 1655 and Military Specifications MIL-T-5624P and MIL-T-83133D (Grades JP-5 and JP-8). It is used for commercial and military turbojet and turboprop aircraft engines.

Commercial.

Kerosene-type jet fuel intended for use in commercial aircraft.

Military.

Kerosene-type jet fuel intended for use in military aircraft.

L

Lease Condensate.

A mixture consisting primarily of pentanes and heavier hydrocarbons which is recovered as a liquid from natural gas in lease separation facilities. This category excludes natural gas liquids, such as butane and propane, which are recovered at downstream natural gas processing plants or facilities. See Natural Gas Liquids.

Light Gas Oils.

Liquid petroleum distillates heavier than naphtha, with an approximate boiling range from 401º F to 650º F.

Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG).

A group of hydrocarbon-based gases derived from crude oil refining or nautral gas fractionation. They include: ethane, ethylene, propane, propylene, normal butane, butylene, isobutane, and isobutylene. For convenience of

transportation, these gases are liquefied through pressurization.

Liquefied Refinery Gases (LRG).

Liquefied petroleum gases fractionated from refinery or still gases. Through compression and/or refrigeration, they are retained in the

liquid state. The reported categories are ethane/ethylene, propane/propylene, normal butane/butylene, and isobutane/isobutylene. Excludes still gas.

Lubricants.

Substances used to reduce friction between bearing surfaces or as process materials either incorporated into other materials used as processing aids in the manufacture of other products, or used as carriers of other materials. Petroleum lubricants may be produced either from distillates or residues. Lubricants include all grades of lubricating oils from spindle oil to cylinder oil and those used in greases.

M

Merchant Oxygenate Plants.

Oxygenate production facilities that are not associated with a petroleum refinery. Production from these facilities is sold under contract or on the spot market to refiners or other gasoline blenders.

Methanol (CH3OH).

A light, volatile alcohol intended for gasoline blending as described in Oxygenate definition.

Middle Distillates.

A general classification of refined petroleum products that includes distillate fuel oil and kerosene.

Military Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel.

See Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel.

Miscellaneous Products.

Includes all finished products not classified elsewhere (e.g., petrolatum, lube refining byproducts (aromatic extracts and tars), absorption oils,

ram-jet fuel, petroleum rocket fuels, synthetic natural gas feedstocks, and specialty oils).

Motor Gasoline (Finished).

A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in spark-ignition engines. Motor gasoline, as defined in ASTM Specification D 4814 or Federal Specification VV-G-1690C, is characterized as having a boiling range of 122 to 158 degrees Fahrenheit at the 10 percent recovery point to 365 to 374 degrees Fahrenheit at the 90 percent recovery point. “Motor Gasoline” includes conventional gasoline; all types of oxygenated gasoline, including gasohol; and reformulated gasoline, but excludes aviation gasoline. Note: Volumetric data on blending components, such as oxygenates, are not counted in data on finished motor gasoline until the blending components are blended into the gasoline.

Reformulated Gasoline.

Finished motor gasoline formulated for use in motor vehicles, the composition and properties of which meet the requirements of the reformulated

gasoline regulations promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under Section 211(k) of the Clean Air Act. Note: This category includes oxygenated fuels program reformulated gasoline (OPRG) but excludes reformulated gasoline blendstock

for oxygenate blending (RBOB).

Oxygenated Gasoline (Including Gasohol).

Finished motor gasoline, other than reformulated gasoline, having an oxygen content of 2.7 percent or higher by weight. Includes gasohol. Note: Oxygenated gasoline excludes oxygenated fuels program reformulated gaso-line (OPRG) and reformulated gasoline blendstock foroxygenate blending (RBOB).

OPRG (Oxygenated Fuels Program ReformulatedGasoline) .

A reformulated gasoline which is intended for use in an oxygenated fuels program control period.

Other Finished or Conventional Gasoline.

Finished motor gasoline not included in the oxygenated or reformulated gasoline categories. Note: This category excludes reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) as well as other blendstock.

Motor Gasoline Blending.

Mechanical mixing of motor gasoline blending components, and oxygenates when required, to produce finished motor gasoline. Finished motor gasoline may be further mixed with other motor gasoline blending components or oxygenates, resulting in increased volumes of finished motor gasoline and/or changes in the formulation of finished motor gasoline (e.g., conventional motor gasoline mixed with MTBE to produce oxygenated motor gasoline).

Motor Gasoline Blending Components.

Naphthas (e.g., straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. These components include reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) but exclude oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Note: Oxygenates are reported as individual components and are included in the total for other hydrocarbons, hydrogens, and oxygenates.

MTBE (Methyl tertiary butyl ether) (CH3)3COCH3.

An ether intended for gasoline blending as described in Oxygenate definition.

N

Naphtha.

A generic term applied to a petroleum fraction with an approximate boiling range between 122º and 400º F.

Naphtha Less Than 401o F.

See Petrochemical Feedstocks.

Naphtha-Type Jet Fuel.

A fuel in the heavy naphtha boiling range having an average gravity of 52.8 degrees API, 20 to 90 percent distillation temperatures of 290 degrees to 470 degrees Fahrenheit, and meeting Military Specification MIL-T-5624L (Grade JP-4). It is used primarily for military turbojet and turboprop aircraft engines because it has a lower freeze point than other aviation fuels and meets engine requirements at high

altitudes and speeds.

Natural Gas.

A gaseous mixture of hydrocarbon compounds, the primary one being methane.

Natural Gas Field Facility.

A field facility designed to process natural gas produced from more than one lease for the purpose of recovering condensate from a stream of

natural gas; however, some field facilities are designed to recover propane, normal butane, pentanes plus, etc., and to control the quality of natural gas to be marketed.

Natural Gas Liquids.

Those hydrocarbons in natural gas that are separated from the gas as liquids through the process of absorption, condensation, adsorption, or other methods in gas processing or cycling plants. Generally such liquids consist of propane and heavier hydrocarbons and are commonly referred to as lease condensate, natural gasoline, and liquefied petroleum gases. Natural gas liquids include natural gas plant liquids (primarily ethane, propane, butane, and isobutane; see Natural Gas Plant Liquids) and lease condensate (primarily pentanes produced from natural gas at lease separators and field

facilities; see Lease Condensate).

Natural Gas Plant Liquids.

Those hydrocarbons in natural gas that are separated as liquids at natural gas processing plants, fractionating and cycling plants, and, in

some instances, field facilities. Lease condensate is excluded. Products obtained include ethane; liquefied petroleum gases (propane, butanes, propane-butane mixtures, ethane-propane mixtures); isopentane; and other small quantities of finished products, such as motor gasoline, special naphthas, jet fuel, kerosene, and distillate fuel oil.

Natural Gas Processing Plant.

Facilities designed to recover natural gas liquids from a stream of natural gas that may or may not have passed through lease separators and/or field separation facilities. These facilities control the quality of the natural gas to be marketed. Cycling plants are classified as gas processing plants.

Natural Gasoline and Isopentane.

A mixture of hydrocarbons, mostly pentanes and heavier, extracted from natural gas, that meets vapor pressure, end-point, and other specifications for natural gasoline set by the Gas Processors Association. Includes isopentane which is a saturated branch-chain hydrocarbon, (C5H12), obtained by fractionation of natural gasoline or isomerization of normal pentane.

Net Receipts.

The difference between total movements into and total movements out of each PAD District by pipeline, tanker, and barge.

Normal Butane.

See Butane.

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