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بدضعیفمتوسطخوبعالی (بدون رتبه)
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Captive Refinery Oxygenate Plants.

Oxygenate production facilities located within or adjacent to a refinery complex.

Catalytic Cracking.

The refining process of breaking down the larger, heavier, and more complex hydrocarbon molecules into simpler and lighter molecules. Catalytic cracking is accomplished by the use of a catalytic agent and is an effective process for increasing the yield of gasoline from crude oil. Catalytic cracking processes fresh feeds and recycled feeds.

Fresh Feeds.

Crude oil or petroleum distillates which are being fed to processing units for the first time.

Recycled Feeds.

Feeds that are continuously fed back for additional processing.

Catalytic Hydrocracking.

A refining process that uses hydrogen and catalysts with relatively low temperatures and high pressures for converting middle boiling or residual material to high-octane gasoline, reformer charge stock, jet fuel, and/or high grade fuel oil. The process uses one or more catalysts, depending upon product output, and can handle high sulfur feedstocks without prior desulfurization.

Catalytic Hydrotreating.

A refining process for treating petroleum fractions from atmospheric or vacuum distillation units (e.g., naphthas, middle distillates, reformer feeds, residual fuel oil, and heavy gas oil) and other petroleum (e.g., cat cracked naphtha, coker naphtha, gas oil, etc.) in the presence of catalysts and substantial quantities of hydrogen. Hydrotreating includes desulfurization, removal of substances (e.g., nitrogen

compounds) that deactivate catalysts, conversion of olefins to paraffins to reduce gum formation in gasoline, and other processes to upgrade the quality of the fractions.

Catalytic Reforming.

A refining process using controlled heat and pressure with catalysts to rearrange certain hydrocarbon molecules, thereby converting paraffinic and naphthenic type hydrocarbons (e.g., low-octane gasoline boiling range fractions) into petrochemical feedstocks and higher octane stocks suitable for blending into finished gasoline. Catalytic reforming is reported in two categories. They are:

Low Pressure.

A processing unit operating at less than 225 pounds per square inch gauge (PSIG) measured at the outlet separator.

High Pressure.

A processing unit operating at either equal to or greater than 225 pounds per square inch gauge (PSIG) measured at the outlet separator.

Charge Capacity.

The input (feed) capacity of the refinery processing facilities.

Coal.

A readily combustible black or brownish-black rock whose composition, including inherent moisture, consists of more than 50 percent by weight and more than 70 percent by volume of carbonaceous material. It is formed from plant remains that have been compacted, hardened, chemically altered, and metamorphosed by heat and pressure over geologic time.

Commercial Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel.

See Kerosene-type Jet Fuel.

Conventional Gasoline.

See Other Finished Motor Gasoline.

Crude Oil.

A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities. Depending upon the characteristics of the crude stream, it may also include:

Small amounts of hydrocarbons that exist in gaseous phase in natural underground reservoirs but are liquid at atmospheric pressure after being recovered from oil well (casinghead) gas in lease separators and are subsequently commingled with the crude stream without being separately measured. Lease condensate recovered as a liquid from natural gas wells in lease or field separation facilities and later mixed into the crude

stream is also included;

Small amounts of nonhydrocarbons produced from oil, such as sulfur and various metals;

Drip gases, and liquid hydrocarbons produced from tar sands, gilsonite, and oil shale.

Liquids produced at natural gas processing plants are excluded. Crude oi lis refined to produce a wide array of petroleum products, including heating oils; gasoline, diesel and jet fuels; lubricants; asphalt; ethane, propane, and butane; and many other products used for their energy or chemical content.

Crude oil is considered as either domestic or foreign, according to the following:

Domestic.

Crude oil produced in the United States or from its “outer continental shelf ” as defined in 43 USC 1331.

Foreign.

Crude oil produced outside the United States. Imported Athabasca hydrocarbons (tar sands from Canada) are included.

Crude Oil, Refinery Receipts.

Receipts of domestic and foreign crude oil at a refinery. Includes all crude oil in transit except crude oil in transit by pipeline. Foreign crude oil is reported as a receipt only after entry through customs. Crude oil of foreign origin held in bonded storage is excluded.

Crude Oil Losses.

Represents the volume of crude oil reported by petroleum refineries as being lost in their operations. These losses are due to spills, contamination, fires, etc. as opposed to refinery processing losses.

Crude Oil Production.

The volume of crude oil produced from oil reservoirs during given periods of time. The amount of such production for a given period is measured

as volumes delivered from lease storage tanks (i.e., the point of custody transfer) to pipelines, trucks, or other media for transport to refineries or terminals with adjustments for (1) net differences between opening and closing lease inventories, and (2) basic sediment and water (BS&W).

Crude Oil Qualities.

Refers to two properties of crude oil, the sulfur content and API gravity, which affect processing complexity and product characteristics.

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Delayed Coking.

A process by which heavier crude oil fractions can be thermally decomposed under conditions of elevated temperatures and pressure to produce a

mixture of lighter oils and petroleum coke. The light oils can be processed further in other refinery units to meet product specifications. The coke can be used either as a

fuel or in other applications such as the manufacturing of steel or aluminum.

Disposition.

The components of petroleum disposition are stock change, crude oil losses, refinery inputs, exports, and products supplied for domestic consumption.

Distillate Fuel Oil.

A general classification for one of the petroleum fractions produced in conventional distillation operations. It includes diesel fuels and fuel oils. Products

known as No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 diesel fuel are used in on-highway diesel engines, such as those in trucks and automobiles, as well as off-highway engines, such as those in railroad locomotives and agricultural machinery.

Products known as No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 fuel oils are used primarily for space heating and electric power generation.

No. 1 Distillate.

A light petroleum distillate that can be used as either a diesel fuel (see No. 1 Diesel Fuel) or a fuel oil. See No. 1 Fuel Oil.

No. 1 Diesel Fuel.

A light distillate fuel oil that has distillation temperatures of 550 degrees Fahrenheit at the 90-percent point and meets the specifications defined in ASTM Specification D 975. It is used in high-speed diesel engines generally operated under

frequent speed and load changes, such as those in city buses and similar vehicles. See No. 1 Distillate.

No. 1 Fuel Oil.

A light distillate fuel oil that has distillation temperatures of 400 degrees Fahrenheit at the 10-percent recovery point and 550 degrees Fahrenheit at the 90-percent point and meets the specifications defined in ASTM Specification D 396. It is used

primarily as fuel for portable outdoor stoves and portable outdoor heaters. See No. 1 Distillate.

No. 2 Distillate.

A petroleum distillate that can be used as either a diesel fuel (see No. 2 Diesel Fuel) or a fuel oil. See No. 2 Fuel Oil.

No. 2 Diesel Fuel.

A fuel that has distillation temperatures of 500 degrees Fahrenheit at the 10-percent recovery point and 640 degrees Fahrenheit at the 90-percent recovery point and meets the specifications defined in ASTM Specification D 975. It is used in

high speed diesel engines that are generally operated under uniform speed and load conditions, such as those in railroad locomotives, trucks, and automobiles. See No. 2 Distillate.

Low Sulfur No. 2 Diesel Fuel.

No. 2 diesel fuel that has a sulfur level no higher than 0.05 percent by weight. It is used primarily in motor vehicle diesel engines for on-highway use.

High Sulfur No. 2 Diesel Fuel.

No. 2 diesel fuel that has a sulfur level above 0.05 percent by weight.

No. 2 Fuel Oil (Heating Oil).

A distillate fuel oil that has distillation temperatures of 400 degrees Fahrenheit at the 10-percent recovery point and 640 degrees Fahrenheit at the 90-percent recovery point and meets the specifications defined in ASTM Specification D

396. It is used in atomizing type burners for domestic heating or for moderate capacity commercial/industrial burner units. See No. 2 Distillate.

No. 4 Fuel.

A distillate fuel oil made by blending distillate fuel oil and residual fuel oil stocks. It conforms with ASTM Specification D 396 or Federal Specification VV-F-815C and is used extensively in industrial plants and in commercial burner installations that are not equipped with preheating facilities. It also includes No. 4 diesel fuel used for low- and medium-speed diesel engines and conforms to ASTM Specification D 975.

No. 4 Diesel Fuel. See No. 4 Fuel.

No. 4 Fuel Oil. See No. 4 Fuel.

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