E-P

بدضعیفمتوسطخوبعالی (بدون رتبه)
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E/P or E&P
Exploration and Production

EPCI
Engineer, Procure, Construct, Install , A form of contracting that provides for turnkey delivery of facilities.

FEED
Front End Engineering and Design , A study used to analyse the various technical options for new field developments with the objective to define the facilities required.

Flowlines
Pipelines carrying reservoir fluid on the seabed from wells to risers.

FPDSO
Floating Production, Drilling, Storage and Offloading system For a description refer to the FPSO, add the capability to drill, complete and workover wells from this facility. Generally this term applies to systems receiving the production stream from several subsea completed wells and where the unit is capable of intervention on (or drilling of) one well while production continues to flow from the others. The Group has patented a concept to accommodate dry trees on board the FPDSO. Also see TLD.

FPSO
Floating Production, Storage and Offloading system An FPSO is a floating facility installed above or close to an offshore oil and gas field to receive, process, store and export hydrocarbons. It consists of a floater (a newbuild or converted tanker) permanently moored on site. The cargo capacity of the vessel is used as buffer storage for the oil produced. The process facilities (topsides) and accommodation are installed on the floater. The mooring configuration may be of the spread mooring type or a single point mooring system, generally a turret. The high pressure mixture of produced fluids is delivered to the process facilities mounted on the deck of the tanker, where the oil, gas and water are separated. The water is discharged overboard after treatment to eliminate hydrocarbons. The stabilised crude oil is stored in the cargo tanks and subsequently transferred into shuttle tankers either via a buoy or by laying in tandem to the FPSO. The gas is used for enhancing the liquid production through gas lift, and for energy production onboard the vessel. The remainder is either flared, or compressed and transported by pipeline to shore or reinjected into the reservoir.

Fractionation
The process to separate a mixed hydrocarbon stream by distillation, making use of the difference in boiling points of the components to be separated. The lower boiling point components are recovered from the top of the fractionation column, and the heavier boiling point components from the bottom. This process is used in LPG processing systems to separate products such as propane and butane.

FSRU
Floating storage and re-gasification unit, a floating vessel that has the capability to be permanently moored at a site where it receives LNG from carriers, stores and re-gasifies the LNG at a rate required by natural gas users.

GAP®
Gravity Actuated Pipe A concept developed by the Group, consisting of a bundle of mid water pipes floating between surface and seabed to minimise pipeline length and temperature problems in deepwater developments. These pipes typically connect a DCU to a floating production facility and carry the flow of gases, oil, water and control signals over large distances. The bundle is stabilised vertically and horizontally by maintaining tension at each end, created by gravity from suspended masses.

Gas and water injection
To enhance the crude oil recovery by maintaining sufficiently high reservoir pressure throughout the production life, it is becoming usual to inject water and/or gas to replace the produced volumes. This reinjection performed above reservoir pressure requires heavy-duty pumps and compressors consuming large amounts of energy. The associated production gas is normally used as fuel.

Gas lift
It is becoming normal practice on FPSO’s, particularly for heavy crudes, to facilitate the flow of live crude from the wells by injecting gas either at xmas tree level or down-hole to lower the back pressure on the wells. In fact, the lift gas is the associated gas from the field, which is treated, compressed and re-circulated into the flow system.

GTL
Gas To Liquids conversion A process, based on Fischer Tropsch technology, which polymerises several gas molecules into a longer chain hydrocarbon molecule that can exist in liquid phase at ambient conditions. This process is being developed as a competitor to LNG for commercialisation of remote gas reserves.

HAZID/HAZOP
HAZard IDentification/HAZard and OPerability analysis Systematic design review methods to identify and address hazards to ensure that the necessary safety measures to eliminate or mitigate hazards are incorporated in the design and operation of the unit.

Heave compensation system
Working offshore often includes working in inclement weather and rough seas. The lifting and lowering of loads from barges and vessels is affected by these conditions and can cause uncontrolled upswing movements in vertical direction, which can lead to damage of the load. To suppress the movements of the load a mechanical system, often referred to as ‘heave compensation system’, is devised to dampen and control vertical movements. Two methods of heave compensation exist; passive systems and active systems.

Heavy load skidding system
A system specially developed by MSC to move a heavy drilling package on the deck of a jack-up drilling rig.
The cantilever and drill floor structures have been combined to one fixed package, which can be skidded both longitudinally and transversely relative to the deck of the drilling jack-up.
The main advantages of the system are a larger reach of the drilling tower, simplified handling of drilling equipment and minimum obstruction of the deck of the drilling jack-up.

Jack Up Drilling rig
A mobile drilling unit, which can elevate itself well above the sea surface on three or more legs to become a stable seabed supported drilling platform. Drilling jack-ups can operate in water depths up to 150 metres. On most jack-up drilling rigs the drill tower is placed on cantilever beams such that wells supported by an adjacent platform can be drilled in work-over mode by skidding the cantilever over that fixed platform.

J-lay tower
A pipe-lay method used in deepwater to allow the pipe to leave the pipe-lay unit at a vertical departure angle. The tower supports the up-ended pipes.

LNG
Liquefied Natural Gas Natural gas (mainly methane) refrigerated to reach liquid phase suitable for transportation in specialised vessels (LNG carriers).

LPG
Liquefied Petroleum Gas Butane and propane mixture, separated from well fluid stream. LPG can be transported under pressure in refrigerated vessels (LPG carriers).

Manifolds
A pipe spool in which a number of incoming pipes are combined to feed to a common output line.

MARPOL
MARine POLution International regulations produced by the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as adopted by the International Conference on Marine Pollution convened by the International Maritime Organisation, which is the regulatory body in respect of pollution by oil, noxious substances, harmful substances in packaged forms, sewage and garbage.

Mid water pipe
A pipeline to transfer fluids or gases between two floating facilities when ultra-deepwater makes sea bottom pipe configurations uneconomical or technically unacceptable. Typically, a mid water pipe would be configured at a depth of 100 to 300 metres.

MMSCFD
Millions of standard cubic feet per day. A commonly used unit to measure gas flows.

MPV
Multi-Purpose Vessel A dedicated vessel that is able to perform multiple tasks for offshore installations.

MSV
Multi-Service Vessel A dedicated vessel which is able to perform multiple maintenance services on platforms, floaters, subsea wells, pipelines and risers.

Non-flaring operations
Operations where the produced gas from an oil field is not allowed to be flared and therefore either has to be transported, used as a fuel source or reinjected.

Pipe-lay barge
A flat-bottom, ship-shape or semi-submersible vessel for the offshore installation of subsea pipelines. Individual pipe joints are welded together on the vessel (to make a continuous string) and subsequently laid onto the seabed in a controlled manner. In medium water depths the pipe-lay barge is anchor-moored. In deepwater areas the barge is dynamically positioned.

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