Abandoned well: a well (oil, natural gas, or water injection) not in use because it was a dry hole originally, or because it has ceased to produce economical quantities of oil and/or natural gas, or has become unusable. Regulations require the plugging of abandoned wells to prevent the seepage of oil, gas, or water from one stratum of underlying rock to another.
Able-bodied seaman (AB): a member of an LNG crew, with three years of sea service, certified by examination to perform all the duties of an experienced seaman. A typical LNG ship carries five ABs in her crew complement. See Crew
Acid gas: a gas that contains compounds, such as C02, H2S, or mercaptans that can form an acid in solution with water.
Acquiring shipper: in the context of capacity release, a shipper who acquires firm capacity rights from a releasing shipper. Also known as ‘replacement shipper’ See Capacity (gas).
Adiabatic: a term describing a thermodynamic process in which no heat is added to or removed from the system.
Admeasurements: the confirmed or official dimensions of an LNG ship.
Advanced turbine systems (ATS): industrial gas turbines, approximately 5 and 15 megawatts (MW) in capacity, for distributed generation, industrial, and cogeneration markets; and gas turbines, combined-cycle systems, 400 MW, for large, base-load, central-station electric-power generation markets. ATS expectations are to meet or exceed 60-percent system efficiencies in the utility market, and to increase efficiencies of industrial turbines by 15 percent. The new turbines emit far less nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons than current gas turbine systems. See Combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT)
Agency Service: an arrangement that allows a gas buyer to give an agent authority to act on the buyer’s behalf to arrange or administer pipeline transportation and/or sales services.
Aggregate receipt points: 1) a hub where different supply sources intersect on a gas pipeline; 2) multiple producer meters entering a pipeline. See Hub or Market center
Aggregator: 1) acts on behalf of groups of producers to collect producer supplies and sell the gas in commingled blocks to end-users. Prior to deregulation, a limited number of aggregators operated. Aggregators do not take title to the gas but simply find markets and negotiate prices for pools of producers. Also called core transport agent: 2) also a firm that bargains on behalf of a large group of consumers to achieve the lowest possible price for utilities such as electricity and gas. The firm ‘aggregates or combines many smaller customers into one large customer for purposes of negotiation and then purchases the utility commodity on behalf of the group.
Alternative fuel capability: the on-site availability of a power plant to burn more than one fuel.
Ambient temperature: environmental temperature unaffected by other heat sources, such as radiation from artificial objects.
American National Standards Institute (ANSI): the coordinating organization for U.S. federated national standards system.
Annual Contract Quantity: the annual delivery quantity contracted for during each contract year as specified in a gas sales or LNG contract.
Annual delivery program (ADP): a key document for both the buyer and seller in determining how they will work together over the life of an LNG project to achieve the efficient delivery and receipt of LNG cargoes; normally agreed between the parties before the beginning of each contract year. For an ex-ship sale, the ADP deals with the dates on which the sellers’ LNG ships will deliver LNG to the buyers’ terminals. For a Free On Board (FOB) sale, the ADP covers the dates of arrival of the buyers’ ships at the LNG plant. Whether the sale is ex-ship or FOB, the ADP provides a basis for decisions on how buyers and sellers will operate their facilities during the contract year covered. Usually, the procedures to be adopted to develop the ADP are agreed upon in the Sales and Purchase Agreement (SPA). See Sales and Purchase Agreement (SPA), CIF contract, Ex-ship contract, and FOB contract
ARA (Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Antwerp): abbreviation commonly used in shipping to designate discharge or loading at one of these three ports.
Articles of agreement: the document containing all particulars relating to the terms of agreement between the Master of the LNG vessel and the crew. Sometimes called ship’s articles or shipping articles.
Asian Development Bank (ADB): a major multilateral financing institution engaged in LNG project finance. See Export Credit Agencies (ECAs) and Multilateral institutions
Asked: the average price asked by those persons recently willing to sell a commodity. Bid is the purchase price and asked is the selling or offer price.
Associated gas: natural gas found mixed with oil in underground reservoirs, that comes out of solution as a by-product of oil production. In these fields, natural gas production fluctuates with oil production. See Non-associated gas
Associated-tree natural gas: in immediate contact, but not in solution, with crude oil in the reservoir. One usually distinguishes between associated (free) gas, dissolved gas, and non-associated gas.
Astern: a backward direction in the line of a vessel’s fore and aft line. If a vessel moves backwards it is said to move astern, “opposite to” ahead.
Atlantic Basin market: See LNG Markets
At-risk condition: a certificate condition which places the responsibility for under-recovery of costs regarding pipeline expansion or new construction on the pipeline sponsor, rather than on the pipeline’s other customers.
Average Daily Quantity (ADO): the monthly contracted quantity of gas divided by the number of customers’ operating days in that month.
Average day: the temperature condition corresponding to a typical day in an average temperature year The gas sales or requirements for an average day are annual totals divided by 365 days.
Average demand: measure of the total of energy loads placed by customers on a system divided by the time period over which the demands are incurred.
Average temperature year: long-term average recorded temperature.
Backhaul: a natural gas transportation service which requires movement of gas from a point of receipt to a point of delivery such that the contractual direction of movement on the pipeline is in a direction opposite to the flow of the gas.
Back-stopping: arranging for alternate supplies of gas in the event the primary source fails to be delivered.
Backwardation: a market where the price for nearby delivery is higher than for further forward months. The opposite of backwardation is “contango” – a market situation where prices are higher for forward delivery dates than for nearer delivery dates.
Balance: the amount of gas put into the pipeline and the amount of gas taken out of the pipeline are equal on a fixed time basis.
Balancing service: gas balancing service accommodates imbalances between actual customer usage and gas delivered for that customer’s use.
Balancing: 1) the requirement imposed by both electricity grids and natural gas pipelines that supply and demand be equal over a certain time period; 2) the practice by shippers of offsetting (balancing) their gas deliveries from the pipeline with injections of gas supplies into the pipeline on a regular basis.
Ballast: heavy substances loaded by a vessel to improve stability, trimming, sea-keeping and to increase the immersion at the propeller. Seawater ballast is commonly loaded in most vessels in ballast tanks, positioned in compartments right at the bottom and in some cases on the sides, called wing tanks. On a tanker, ballast is seawater that is taken into the cargo tanks to submerge the vessel to a proper trim.
Ballast tank: compartments at the bottom of a ship or on the sides that are filled with liquids for stability and to make the ship seaworthy. Any shipboard tank or compartment on a tanker normally used for carrying salt water ballast. When these compartments or tanks are not connected with the cargo system, they are called segregated ballast tanks or systems.
Bare boat charter: a charter in which the bare ship is chartered without crew; the charterer, for a stipulated sum takes over the vessel for a stated period of time with a minimum of restrictions; the charterer appoints the master and the crew and pays all running expenses.
Barrel (bbl): a volumetric unit of measure for crude oil and petroleum products equivalent to 42 US gallons or 158.978 liters. See Barrel of Oil Equivalent (BOE)
Barrel of Oil Equivalent (BOE): the oil equivalence of natural gas is normally based on the amount of heat released when the gas is burned as compared with burning a barrel of oil. For a typical natural gas, burning 6,000 standard cubic feet liberates about the same amount of heat as burning one barrel of an average crude.
Barrels per calendar day (b/cd): total throughput divided by number of calendar days. The total divided by actual number of days in operation (i.e., stream days) gives the stream-day- rate, which equals or exceeds the calendar-day-rate. Calendar day is a term describing the throughput of a facility that occurs on a daily basis averaged over a long period of time. A calendar day rate times 365 gives the average annual rate.
Barrels per day (bid, bpd, or bbl/d): a unit of measurement used in the industry for the production rates of oil fields, pipelines, and transportation.
Base gas: gas required in a storage pool to maintain sufficient pressure to keep the working gas recoverable.
Base load capacity: the generating equipment normally operated to serve loads on an around-the-clock basis.
Base period: in the US under FERC regulations, a recent twelve- month period which serves as the “sample” period for demonstrating pipeline operational costs on which the pipeline’s future rates will be based.
Base pressure: standard unit of pressure used in determining gas volume. Volumes are measured at operating pressures and then corrected to base pressure volume. Base pressure is normally defined in any gas measurement contract. The standard value for natural gas in the United States is 14.73 psia, established in 1969 by the American National Standards Institute as standard Z-132.1. Also called “base conditions”. The standard pressure specified in US state regulations on base pressure varies slightly from state to state.
Base temperature: an arbitrary temperature to which measurements of a volume of gas are referred. The standard value in the United States is 60° F (520° R) for natural gas as established by the American National Standards Institute as standard Z-132.1.
Bcf: acronym for “billion cubic feet”. Bcfs are used to measure the volume of large quantities of natural gas.
Beach gas: natural gas transported via offshore pipelines to a number of gas gathering and processing terminals located at or near a coastal region.
Beach price: price applying to natural gas at landfall.
Beam: the width of a ship; also called “breadth”.
Best bid: in the context of bids for firm transportation capacity to be released, the highest bid which qualifies under the specified criteria.
Bid: the price that market participants are willing to pay.
Bill of Lading (B/L): a document by which the Master of a ship acknowledges having received in good order and condition (or the reverse) certain specified goods consigned to him by some particular shipper, and binds himself to deliver them in similar condition, unless the perils of the sea, fire or enemies prevent him, to the consignees of the shippers at the point of destination on their paying him the stipulated freight. A bill of lading specifies the name of the master, the port and destination of the ship, the goods, the consignee and the rate of freight; documentation legally demonstrating a cargo has been loaded. The bill of lading is signed by the Master of the ship and the contract supplier.
Black start the initial operation of a facility that begins with no utilities in service.
Block: the subdivision of a nation’s exploration and production acreage. Blocks are generally defined in terms of latitude and longitude, at one-degree intervals.
Blow down: the depress ring of a reservoir through production of gas. This can occur with either gas or oil reservoirs at any stage in their life cycle.
Blowout: an uncontrolled flow of gas, oil, or water from a well due to the release of pressure from a reservoir; may be the result of the failure of the containment system.
Boatswain (BOSUN): on an LNG vessel, tantamount to a foreman; directly supervises maintenance operations. See Crew
Boiler: a closed vessel in which a liquid is heated, or heated and evaporated. Boilers are often classified as steam or hot water, low pressure or high pressure, capable of burning one fuel or a number of fuels.
Boil-off vapor: usually refers to the gases generated during the storage of volatile liquefied gases, such as LNG. NG boils at slightly above -163°C at atmospheric pressure and is loaded, transported and discharged at this temperature, which requires special materials, insulation and handling equipment to deal with the low-temperature and the boil-off vapor (heat leakage keeps the cargo surface constantly boiling).
Booster station: an installation built in an onshore or offshore pipeline to increase the pressure of the fluid in the pipeline. Also applies to oil and NGL pipelines. See Compressor station
Bottled gas: liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) stored in a liquid state in steel containers at moderate pressure and ambient temperatures.
Bow thrusters: propeller at the lower sea-covered part of the bow of the ship which turns at right angles to the fore-and-aft line and thus provides transverse thrust as a maneuvering aid.
Break bulk: to commence discharge of cargo.
Bridge: loosely used to refer to the navigating section of the vessel where the wheelhouse and chart room are located; erected either amid ship, aft or very rarely fore over the main deck of a ship.
British Thermal Unit (Btu): an energy unit; the quantity of heat necessary to raise the temperature of one pound-mass of water one degree Fahrenheit from 58.5° F to 59.5° F under a standard pressure of 30 inches of mercury at 32° F The following conversions would apply to natural gas that contains exactly 1,000 Btus per cubic foot, which is approximately true for most gas delivered in the U.S.:
1 cubic foot (cf)= 1,000 Btu
1 therm 100 cf = 100,000 Btu
1 Thousand cf = 1 million Btu
1 Billion cf = 1 trillion Btu
1 Trillion ct = 1 quad 1 quadrillion Btu
Broker: gas merchant who charges a fee for matching sellers to buyers and who may help arrange gas transportation, but does not take title to the gas.
Bubble point: the temperature and pressure at which a liquid first begins to vaporize to gas.
Bulk cargo: any liquid or solid cargo loaded on to a vessel without packaging (e.g. oil or LNG).
Bulkhead: name given to any vertical partition that separates different compartments or spaces from one another on a ship.
Buoy: a floating object employed as an aid to mariners to mark the navigable limits of channels, their fairways, sunken dangers, isolated rocks, telegraph cables, and so forth; reference points for navigation.
Burner tip: the point at which natural gas is used as a fuel.
Buy/Sell arrangement whereby a party sells gas at the wellhead to a party with priority space in the pipeline queue, and then repurchases the gas downstream, paying transmission costs and any prearranged differentials.
Calendar month: the period beginning on the first “gas day” of the calendar month and ending on the first “gas day” of the next month.
Calorific value: the quantity of heat produced by the complete combustion of a fuel. This can be measured dry or saturated with water vapor, net or gross. The general convention is dry and gross. See also Heating value
Capacity allocations: allotment of space in a pipeline.
Capacity assignment: the process by which an entity that holds the rights and obligations to pipeline capacity transfers those rights and obligations to another entity.
Capacity brokering: the assignment of rights to receive firm gas transportation service.
Capacity constraint: A restriction or limitation at any point along a pipeline system that affects acceptance, movement or subsequent redelivery of natural gas. A pipeline company determines the sufficiency of its capacity to deliver gas to customers.
Capacity emergency: a condition that exists when a system’s or pool’s load exceeds its operating capacity and cycling reserve margin, plus firm purchases from other systems and available imports from adjacent systems.
Capacity release: enables a shipper (releasing shipper) who has reserved firm transportation capacity to release-sell-excess capacity to a replacement shipper. The revenue received from the replacement shipper can be used to offset some of the costs associated with reserving firm transportation. Although capacity release deals can be negotiated between shippers, the preferred method of releasing capacity is with the use of a pipeline’s electronic bulletin board through a closed bidding process. Capacity release has created a secondary market and has increased efficiency in the gas transportation market.
Capital investment: money spent for an asset expected to produce income over its useful life.
Captive customer: buyer that can receive natural gas from only one service provider, with no access to alternate fuel sources; usually describing a residential or small commercial user, but may apply to a large industrial and electric utility user that is attached to a single pipeline.
Carbon: the base of all hydrocarbons; capable of combining with hydrogen in almost numberless hydrocarbon compounds. The carbon content of a hydrocarbon determines, to a degree, the hydrocarbon’s burning characteristics and qualities.
Cargo handling: the act of loading and discharging a cargo ship.
Cargo plan: a plan giving the quantities and description of the various grades carried in the ship’s cargo tanks, after the loading is completed.
Cash-out: a procedure in which shippers are allowed to resolve imbalances by cash payments, in contrast to making up imbalances with gas volumes in-kind. See Imbalance trading
Casing head gas: unprocessed natural gas produced from a reservoir containing oil.
Catalyst: a substance whose presence changes the rate of chemical reaction without itself undergoing permanent change in its composition. Catalysts may be accelerators or retarders.
Cathodic protection: a method employed to minimize the rate of electrochemical corrosion of pipelines or structures.
Celsius (C): temperature scale based on the freezing (0 degrees) and boiling (100 degrees) points of water at atmospheric pressure; formerly known as Centigrade. To convert Celsius to Fahrenheit, multiply the number by 1 .8 and add 32.
Certificate of Discharge: an essential document for officers and seamen; official certification confirming completion of the employment for which engaged.
Certificate of Registry: a document specifying the nation registry of the vessel.
Charter party: contractual agreement between a ship owner and a cargo owner, usually arranged by a broker, whereby a ship is chartered (hired) either for one voyage or a period of time.
Charter rates: tariff applied for chartering tonnage in a particular trade.
Charterer: the entity to whom is given the use of the whole of the carrying capacity of a ship for the transportation of cargo to a stated port for a specified time. See Time charter party
Cherry-picking: pursuing desirable customers and ignoring less desirable customers. The term is commonly used to describe a company’s tactic of trying to get the business of the largest energy or service users.
Chief engineer: the senior engineer officer who generally oversees functioning of all mechanical equipment on ship; calculates fuel and water consumption and requirements, and coordinates operations with shore side port engineer. See Crew
Chief Officer: the officer next in rank to the Master. Also called First Mate, Chief mate. See Crew.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): family of manufactured chemicals; also called chlorinated fluorocarbons.
City gas: treated and conditioned gas for consumer use. Also known as Sales gas.
City gate rate: the rate charged a distribution utility by its suppliers; refers to the cost of the natural gas at the point at which the distribution utility historically takes title to the natural gas. Also called “gate rate”.
City gate station (city gate): the point or measuring station at which a gas distribution utility physically receives gas from a pipeline or transmission company; the point at which the backbone transmission system connects to the distribution system. There is not necessarily a change of ownership at a city gate station.
Class of service: a group of customers with similar characteristics (e.g., residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) that are identified for the purpose of setting a rate for service.
Classification society: private organizations that arrange inspections and advise on the hull and machinery of a ship. Supervise vessels during their construction and afterward, in respect to their seaworthiness, and places vessels in grades or “classes” according to the society’s rules for each particular type. It is not compulsory by law that a ship-owner should have his vessel built according to the rules of any classification society. In practice, the difficulty in securing satisfactory insurance rates for an unclassed vessel makes it a commercial obligation. The major classification societies — American Bureau of Shipping, Lloyds Register of Shipping, Det Norske Veritas, Bureau Veritas and Germanischer Lloyd – have included the International Maritime Organization (IMO) LNG Gas Codes in their rules. See International Maritime Organization (IMO)
Co-firing: the process of burning natural gas simultaneously with another fuel. Co-firing can reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions.
Cogeneration (COGEN): the simultaneous production of electrical energy from the combustion of a single fuel source via two means: gas turbines and steam turbines. See Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT)
Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT): this is the combination of simple gas turbines with a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and a steam turbine in a power generation plant. Gas is combined with air and burned, with the expanded gas turning the blades of the gas turbines to power an electricity generator (the Brayton thermodynamic cycle). The hot exhaust gases are passed to the HRSG, in which water is converted to steam that is used in a single steam turbine to power another generator (the Rankine thermodynamic cycle). Also called “combined cycle generation.”
Combined Heat and Power (CHP): the simultaneous generation of two forms of energy from a single fuel source. Electrical energy is produced via gas turbines and heat energy (steam) is produced via a heat recovery steam generator. See Combined Cycle Gas Turbine
Commercial field: a hydrocarbon field that, under existing economic and operating conditions, is judged to be capable of generating enough revenues to exceed the costs of development.
Committed gas contract: a source-specific natural gas sales contract that commits the seller to deliver natural gas, from specific described reserves or sources.
Commodity charge: throughput or usage charge a fee paid to the pipeline operator, based on the number of decatherms moved by the pipeline for the shipper. At the local market it is referred to as the gas portion of the end-user’s bill-charged at the burner tip; the component of rates charged to customers that reflects the volume of gas actually transported by a utility or the cost of gas actually purchased by the utility.
Common carrier: a facility obligated by law to provide service to all potential users without discrimination, with services to be prorated among users in the event capacity is not sufficient to meet all requests. In the U. S. interstate oil pipelines are common carriers, but interstate natural gas pipelines are not (they are open access contract carriers).
Company-used gas: natural gas consumed by a gas distribution or gas transmission company or the gas department of a combination utility, e.g. fuel for compressor stations.
Complement: the number of officers and crew employed upon a vessel for its safe navigation and operation.
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG): natural gas that has been compressed under high pressures (typically between 3,000 and 3,600 psi) and held in a container; expands when released for use as a fuel.
Compressibility factor: the ratio of the actual volume of a gas divided by the volume that would be predicted by the ideal gas law, usually referred to as the “Z” factor.
Compression ratio: the relationship of absolute outlet pressure at a compressor to absolute inlet pressure.
Compression: the act or process of contracting a volume of gas into a smaller space.
Compressor station: a booster station associated with a gas pipeline that uses compressors to increase the gas pressure. When gas turbines are used to provide compressor power, stations can use some of the gas moving through the line as fuel.
Compressors: a mechanical device used to raise the pressure of a gas. Compressors can be of three types: axial, centrifugal, or reciprocating. The usual means of providing the required power are electrical motors, steam turbines, or gas turbines.
Condensate: a hydrocarbon liquid that forms by precipitation from a gas. When the liquid precipitates in the reservoir during pressure depletion, the liquid is referred to as retrograde condensate. Surface production of hydrocarbon liquids through primary separation facilities is referred to as condensate when it comes from a gas reservoir. Natural gas condensates consist primarily of pentanes (C5H12) and heavier components; there will be some propane and butane dissolved within the mixture.
Confirmed nomination: verification by a pipeline company that a change in a customer’s level of transportation service will be matched by a change in supplier quantities.
Consignee: the entity to whom cargo is consigned as stated on the bills of lading.
Consignor: the entity named in the bill of lading as the one from whom the goods have been received for shipment.
Consumer: the ultimate end-user of natural gas at their “burner tip” as contrasted to a “customer” who may purchase natural gas for resale.
Contract Price (CP): price agreed between sellers and buyers.
Contract term: the term of effectiveness of a contract.
Contracted reserves: natural gas reserves dedicated to fulfill gas contracts.
Conventional gas: 1) natural gas occurring in nature, as opposed to synthetic gas; 2) gas produced under present- day technology at a cost not greater than the current market value.
Core customer: buyer that can purchase natural gas from only one supplier, with no access to alternate fuel sources; usually describing a residential or small commercial user, but may apply to a large industrial and electric utility user as well. Usually pays a higher rate for assured service.
Cost of capital: the weighted average cost of financing investment projects, primarily through debt and/or equity financing.
Cost of development/BOE (COD): the unit cost ($/BOE) required to develop a project. Calculated by taking the total unescalated net development investment including seismic, technical data, drilling and completion costs, and costs of incremental surface facilities divided by incremental net proved developed reserves.
Cost, insurance and freight (CIF) contract: in an LNG CIF contract, the buyer takes ownership of the LNG either as the LNG is loaded onto the vessel or on the voyage to the receiving terminal. Payment is made at the time ownership transfers but the seller remains responsible for the transportation and insures the cargo on behalf of the buyer. See ex-Ship contract and Free on Board contract
Crew: the company of officers and personnel on board ship. Though operations are similar to other types of ships, there is more emphasis on crew training for steam turbine plant and LNG cargo handling operations, as well as planned maintenance procedures.
Critical pressure: 1) for a pure component, the pressure above which separate liquid and gas phases cannot exist; 2) the vapor pressure of a substance at its critical temperature; partial liquefaction can occur below the critical pressure even at the critical temperature.
Critical temperature: for a pure component, the temperature above which a liquid phase cannot exist.
Cryogenics: the production and application of low temperature phenomena. The cryogenic temperature range is usually from -1 50°C (-238°F) to absolute zero (-273°C or -460°F), the temperature at which molecular motion essentially ceases. A most important commercial application of cryogenic gas liquefaction techniques is the storage, transportation, and regasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG).
Cubic capacity: the volumetric measurement of the ship’s cargo compartments.
Cubic feet per day (cf/d): at standard conditions, the number of cubic feet of natural gas produced from a well over a 24 hour period, normally an average figure from a longer period of time. Generally expressed as mcf/d = thousand cubic feet per day, mmcf/d = million cubic feet per day, or bcf/d = billion cubic feet per day.
Cubic foot: The amount of gas required to fill a volume of one cubic foot under stated conditions of temperature, pressure, and water vapor.
• SCF = Standard Cubic Foot (One cubic foot of gas at standard conditions, i.e. 14.73 psia and 60° F without adjustments for water vapor)
• MCF = One Thousand Cubic Feet (Multiply by 1,000)
• MMCF = One Million Cubic Feet (Multiply by 1,000,000)
• BCF One Billion Cubic Feet (Multiply by 1,000,000,000)
Note: the above symbols are the most commonly used symbols in the US gas industry. In certain companies and countries, the metric symbols are used instead. Under this system one thousand cubic feet is abbreviated to KCF; one million cubic feet is abbreviated to MCF; and one billion cubic feet is abbreviated to GCF.
Cubic meter (cm): unit of measurement for gas volume. The amount of gas required to fill the volume of one cubic meter.
Curtailment: an action by which the customer receives less than the contract quantity of natural gas or services due to a system-wide shortage.
Cushion gas: the volume of gas that is required in an underground storage field to maintain minimum field pressure. This cushion gas (or base gas) is not available for withdrawal unless replaced with immiscible injectant to maintain field pressure.
Custody Transfer Measuring System (CTMS): LNG ships are fitted with high accuracy liquid-level, temperature, and vapor pressure measuring equipment. The cargo tanks are calibrated by an independent measurer so that the volume of cargo can be determined accurately. The CTMS is accepted by the buyer and the seller of the cargo as the basis for the quantity purchased or sold. Samples of the LNG cargo are taken ashore and analyzed to determine the cargo’s chemical composition from which the heating value can be calculated. The heating value is then multiplied by the volume loaded or discharged from the ship to obtain the British thermal unit (Btu) content of the delivered cargo which is used as the basis for cargo invoices, import duties and fiscal accounting.
Customer demand charge: the component of rates charged to customers that is expected to cover the fixed costs incurred by the pipeline. The other component of rates is the commodity charge. This charge is also referred to as a reservation charge.
Cycle volume: volume of natural gas that can be withdrawn from underground storage during the winter season and then be replaced during the summer season.
Daily average send-out: total volume of natural gas delivered during a proscribed period of time, divided by the total number of days in the period.
Daily Contracted Quantity (DCQ): the average daily quantity of natural gas that is contracted to be supplied and taken.
Deadfreight factor: percentage of a ship’s carrying capacity that is not utilized.
Deadfreight: space booked by shipper or charterer on a vessel but not used.
Deadweight tonnage (DWT): a common measure of ship carrying capacity: 1) the number of tons (2,240 lbs.) of cargo, stores and bunkers that a vessel can transport; 2) the difference in weight between a vessel when t is fully loaded and when t is empty (in general transportation terms, the net) measured by the water it displaces. This is the most common, and useful, measurement for shipping as it measures cargo capacity and; 3) the difference between the number of tons of water a vessel displaces ‘light” and the number of tons it displaces when submerged to the “deep load line”. A vessel’s cargo capacity is less than its total deadweight tonnage.
Dedicated Design Day Capacity (DDDC) the maximum volume of gas dedicated to a customer’s use and based on the maximum number of therms recorded by meter on the most demanding day – typically the coldest day – of the year; expressed as a decimal number. Also known as “premise demand factor”.
Degree days measured as the number of degrees above or below a standardized temperature on any given day.
Dehydration: the removal of water from a fluid.
Dehydrator: natural gas processing equipment that removes water vapor. Typically, glycol dehydration units are used to dry gas before it is sent to a gas transmission line. If the gas is to be sent to a cryogenic expander plant or LNG plant, then the gas is typically dehydrated using molecular sieves.
Deliverability (LNG ships): one major aspect of LNG project planning consists of estimating the transportation capacity required, taking into account the time necessary for each function in the chain of events within a typical round voyage of an LNG carrier. A typical delivery calculation for a 137,500- cubic meter LNG carrier might be:
One-way distance 6,000 nautical miles
Ship ‘service’ speed 19 knots
Sea days (round trips) 26.31
Port days (round trips) 2
Total days in voyage 28.31 say 29
Operating days in year 350
Voyages per year 12.07
Ship capacity (net) 135,000 m3
Less: heel 3,000 m3
Discharge quantity 132,000 m3
Annual delivered quantity 132,000 x 12.07
LNG specific gravity varies depending on gas composition, but is typically about 0.45, therefore the annual deliverability of the vessel is 0.45 x 1,593,103 716,896 metric tons. If the maximum output of the liquefaction train is 3.3 mmtpa (million metric tons per annum), this would equal a maximum daily production of 10,000 tons over the 330-day annual operating period. The deliverability of a 137,500-cubic meter ship is 59,400 metric tons which means it can cater for a daily production of 2,048 metric tons on this route, or five ships can carry 10,240 tons, slightly more than maximum production.
Deliverability: the volume of natural gas that a pipeline or distribution system can supply in a given period normally during a 24-hour period.
Delivery point operator: the operator responsible for balancing loads and allocating natural gas quantities received at delivery points to parties who have contracted to receive deliveries at the point.
Delivery point: designates the point where natural gas is transferred from one party to another.
Demand charge: a fixed fee, generally paid monthly, to reserve capacity space in a pipeline, storage, or distribution facility.
Demand forecast: an estimate of the level of energy or capacity that is likely to be needed at some time in the future.
Demurrage: a fee, per day or per hour, agreed to be paid by the charterer or receiver of the cargo, for the detention of a vessel, loading or unloading, beyond the lay time allowed in the charter party.
Department of Energy (DOE): the U.S. federal department that manages programs of research, development, and commercialization for various energy technologies, and associated environmental, regulatory and defense programs. DOE announces energy policies and acts as a principal advisor to the President on energy matters.
Deregulated gas: natural gas no longer subject to sales and/or price regulation.
Deregulation: the process of removing restrictive regulations on previously regulated power and utility companies.
Desulphurization: processes by which sulfur and sulfur compounds are removed from gases or petroleum liquid mixtures.
Development Agreement (DA): one of the range of agreements between governments and petroleum resource developers is the DA or one of its variants – the Development and Fiscal Agreement (DFA) or the Development and Production Sharing Agreement (DPSA).
Dew point: the temperature, at a given pressure, at which a vapor will form a first drop of liquid on the subtraction of heat. Further cooling of liquid at its dew point results in condensation of part or all of the vapor as a liquid.
Disabled ship: a vessel impaired so as to be incapable of proceeding on her voyage.
Discount: an amount agreed between buyer and seller to be subtracted from an existing benchmark.
Dispatch: the monitoring and regulation of an electrical or natural gas system to provide coordinated operation; the sequence in which generating resources are called upon to generate power to serve fluctuating loads.
Displacement gas: 1) in pipeline transportation, the substitution of a source of natural gas at one point for another source of natural gas at another point. Through displacement, natural gas can be transported by backhaul or exchange; 2) in natural gas marketing, the substitution of natural gas from one supplier of a customer with natural gas from another competing supplier.
Dissolved gas: natural gas in solution in crude oil in the reservoir.
Distribution company (gas): a gas utility that obtains the major portion of its natural gas operating revenues from the operation of a retail gas distribution system, a gas distributor.
Distribution: the delivery of a utility (natural gas, electricity, water) to a household or business.
Diurnal storage: daily storage; refers to short-term or peak storage in pipelines or natural gas holders, as opposed to seasonal storage.
Downstream pipeline: a pipeline receiving natural gas from another pipeline at an interconnection point. See Upstream pipeline
Downstream: commercial gas operations which are closer to the end-user or “burner tip”, as opposed to upstream which is closer to production.
Draft: the depth of a ship in the water; vertical distance between the waterline and the keel, expressed in feet in the US, elsewhere in meters; Also Draught.
Dry (or lean) gas: 1) gas that has been treated to remove liquids and inert making it suitable for shipping in a pipeline; 2) natural gas from the well containing no water vapor that will liquefy at ambient temperature and pressure, i.e. the gas is “water dry”. Gas is usually priced on a dry basis. See Pipeline quality gas; 3) a gas whose water content has been reduced by dehydration or; 4) a gas containing little or no hydrocarbons that could be recovered as a liquid condensate.
Dry dock: an enclosed basin into which a ship is taken for underwater cleaning and repairing. It is fitted with water tight entrance gates which, when closed, permit the dock to be pumped dry.
Dry gas field: reservoir(s) consisting primarily of light hydrocarbons and negligible quantities of condensate.
Dry measurement basis: method of measuring total heating value whereby one cubic foot of gas is measured absent of water vapor under standard conditions of pressure and temperature.
Emergency Shutdown Systems (ESD): a system, usually independent of the main control system, that is designed to safely shut down an operating system. For example, at ‘ship shore interface’, LNG cargo transfer between ship and shore is accomplished by a series of shore-based articulated loading arms, usually three or four liquid arms and a single vapor arm. The configuration is similar at both the loading and discharge terminals. These arms have flexibility in three directions to allow for relative motion between ship and shore. If this allowable motion is exceeded, alarms sound on the ship and shore. Cargo transfer is automatically stopped, either by the shore pumps shutting down during loading, or the ship’s pumps shutting down during unloading.
Enabling agreement: provides the general terms and conditions for the purchase, sale, or exchange of LNG, pipeline gas and electricity but does not list specific contract details.
End-Users: the ultimate consumers of natural gas, including residential, commercial, industrial, wholesale, cogeneration and utility electric generation customers.
Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) Contract: 1) a legal agreement setting out the terms for all activities required to build a facility to the point that it is ready to undergo preparations for operations as designed. 2) the final contracting phase in the development of the export portion of the LNG chain that defines the terms under which the detailed design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of the facilities will be conducted. Greenfield LNG project development entails a wide variety of design, engineering, fabrication and construction work far beyond the capabilities of a single contractor. Therefore, an LNG project developer divides the work into a number of segments, each one being the subject of an EPC contract. For example, separate EPC contracts are executed for construction of onshore LNG plant and related infrastructure, for the offshore production facilities, and for the pipeline from the offshore location to the plant site. See Front End Engineering and Design (FEED) Contract
Enriching: increasing the heat content of natural gas by mixing it with a gas of higher Btu content.
Ensign: flag carried by a ship to show her nationality.
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA): an assessment of the impact of an industrial installation or activity on the surrounding environment, conducted before work on that activity has commenced. The original baseline study, a key part of this process, describes the original conditions.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): the U.S. federal agency that administers federal environmental policies, enforces environmental laws and regulations, performs research, and provides information on environmental subjects. The agency also acts as chief advisor to the President on American environmental policy and issues.
Equation of state: a mathematical relationship between pressure, volume, and the temperature of a fluid that permits the prediction of the real volumetric and thermodynamic behavior.
Equity gas: the proportion of natural gas to which a producing company is entitled as a result of its financial contribution to the project.
Escalator clause: a clause in a gas purchase or sale contract that permits adjustment of the contract price under specified conditions.
Evergreen clause: a contract clause that extends the contract beyond the initial term, until one of the parties gives a required notice of termination.
Excess capacity: a pipeline that is operating at a point below maximum capacity. If a pipeline has excess capacity, it can receive additional gas.
Exergy analysis: the evaluation of a thermodynamic process’s irreversibility and inefficiency. Exergy analysis is a fundamental design mechanism to increase efficiency and reduce costs.
Export Credit Agencies (ECA5): government agencies whose mission is to facilitate the export sale of goods and services by providing credits which are more attractive than those available commercially, and by providing security for credit and political risk which may not be available at an economic cost from private finance sources. ECAs of the United States, Europe and Japan have been consistent financing sources for LNG projects; includes Export-Import Banks of the United States (USExIm) and Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC), Britain’s Export Credit Guarantee Department (ECGD), Germany’s HERMES, France’s COFACE and Italy’s SACE. See Multilateral institutions
Ex-Ship contract: in an LNG ex-Ship contract, ownership of the LNG transfers to the buyer as the LNG is unloaded at the receiving terminal, and payment is due at that time. See Cost, insurance and freight (CIF) contract and Free on board (FOB) contract
Extraction loss: the reduction in volume of wet natural gas due to the removal of natural gas liquids, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, water vapor and other impurities from the natural gas stream. Also called “shrinkage”
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC): the chief energy regulatory body of the U.S. government and therefore responsible for regulating LNG facilities in the U.S. The FERC is considered an independent regulatory agency responsible primarily to Congress but is housed in the US Department of Energy
Feedstock gas (feed gas): dry natural gas used as raw material for LNG, petrochemical and gas-to-liquids (GTL) plants.
FERC blanket certificate: authorization from FERC to the interstate pipeline to offer a service to the public without individual certification or approval filings.
FERC Order 497 – A 1988 FERC Order: having to do with the activities of marketing affiliates of interstate pipeline companies. Among other things, it establishes guidelines for sharing of certain insider information. It requires disclosure of certain information regarding shared personnel and affiliate transactions.
FERC Order 636: 1992 order that unbundled US pipeline services, requiring pipelines to cease their merchant function and instead become solely a transporter of gas.
FERC Order 637 – 2000 FERC Order: that required changes in FERC regulation of interstate pipelines, changes designed to encourage greater comparability between primary pipeline capacity and the secondary capacity (capacity release) market.
Field natural gas: natural gas extracted from a production well prior to entering the first stage of processing, such as dehydration.
Field: an area consisting of a single reservoir or multiple reservoirs all grouped on or related to the same individual geological structural feature and/or stratigraphic condition. There may be two or more reservoirs in a field which are separated vertically by intervening impervious strata, or laterally by local geologic barriers, or by both.
FIP: Free In Pipe. LPG is sometimes sold on this basis.
Firm energy (contract): energy sales guaranteed to be delivered under terms defined by contract.
Firm transportation: a fixed obligation where the transporter is obligated to provide a specified capacity without interruption.
Fixed price contract: contract in which a specific price is agreed for commodities.
Flare: a flame used to burn off unwanted natural gas; a “flare stack” is the steel structure on a processing facility from which gas is flared.
Flash point: the temperature under very specific conditions at which a combustible liquid will give off sufficient vapor to form a flammable mixture with air in a standardized vessel. Related to the volatility of the liquid.
Flash vapors: gas vapors released from a stream of natural gas liquids as a result of an increase in temperature or a decrease in pressure.
Force Majeure: a term commonly used in contracts to describe an event or effect that cannot be reasonably controlled.
Forward contract: a commitment to buy (long) or sell (short) an underlying asset at a specified date at a price (known as the exercise or forward price) specified at the origination of the contract.
Forward haul: a natural gas transportation service which requires movement of gas from a point of receipt to a point of delivery such that the contractual direction of movement on the pipeline is in the same direction as the flow of the gas.
Fossil fuel: any naturally occurring organic fuel formed in the earth’s crust, such as petroleum, coal, or natural gas.
Fractionation: the process of separating a fluid mixture into its primary constituents, e.g., separating a natural gas condensate into ethane, propane, butanes and heavier components.
Fracturing: refers to a method used by producers to extract more natural gas from a well by opening up rock formations using hydraulic or explosive force. Advanced fracturing techniques are enhancing producers’ ability to find and recover natural gas, as well as extending the longevity of older wells.
Free on Board (FOB) contract: in an LNG FOB contract, the buyer lifts the LNG from the liquefaction plant and is responsible for transporting the LNG to the receiving terminal. The buyer is responsible for the shipping, either owning the LNG ships or chartering them from a ship-owner. In a FOB contract, the seller requires assurance that the shipping protocols provide a safe and reliable off-take for the LNG to prevent disruption to the Sale and Purchase Agreement (SPA). See Cost, insurance and freight (CIF) contract, Ex-Ship contract and Sale and Purchase Agreement (SPA)
Freight: charge made for the transportation of a cargo.
Front End Engineering and Design (FEED) Contract:
1) a legal agreement setting out the terms for all activities required to define the design of a facility to a level of definition necessary for the starting point of an EPC contract; 2) Generally, the second contracting phase for the development of the export facilities in the LNG chain which provides greater definition than the prior Conceptual design phase. In an LNG project, the single most important function of the FEED contract is to provide the maximum possible definition for the work ultimately to be performed by the Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC) contractor. This enables potential EPC contractors to submit bids on a lump-sum basis, with the least possibility that the contract cost will change through undefined work or through claims for unanticipated changes in the work. Clear definition of contract costs is important not only for cost control purposes, but also for purposes of project financing — LNG project lenders will normally limit their lending commitment to a specific percentage of forecast project costs, and cost overruns will have to be covered by the borrower’s equity investment. See Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) Contract
Fuel gas: a process stream internal to a facility that is used to provide energy for operating the facility.
Fuel loss: a proportion of natural gas received by a pipeline or local distribution company that is retained to compensate for lost and unaccounted for natural gas.
Fuel-switching capability: the ability of an end-user to readily change fuel.
Full cycle economics: economic analysis that includes all costs of field development including seismic expense, lease cost, and construction, drilling, completion, and development costs.
Gas cap: a free gas phase within a reservoir that overlies an oil zone.
Gas condensate reservoir: a reservoir initially containing natural gas that will precipitate hydrocarbon liquid (retrograde condensate) during pressure depletion. To increase the recovery of the condensate, gas may be recycled in early years and produced at a later date.
Gas cycling: process in which produced gas is re-injected into the reservoir after removal of condensate in order to maintain reservoir pressure and prevent condensate from “condensing” in the reservoir (retrograde condensation) and becoming difficult to recover.
Gas day: in the US, a period of twenty-four consecutive hours, beginning at 9 am. Central Time.
Gas distribution Line: a gas pipeline, normally operating at pressures of 60 pounds per square inch (psi) or less, which transports gas from high pressure transmission lines to end- users.
Gas field: a field or group of reservoirs of hydrocarbons containing natural gas but insignificant quantities of oil.
Gas gathering system: a system for collecting gas production from different sources for delivery by pipeline to a central point such as a platform or processing facility. The gas sources could be individual wells, smaller gathering systems, field facilities and platforms.
Gas grid: 1) the system of pipelines that run from the wellhead to the city gate; 2) the network of gas transmission and distribution pipelines in a region or country, through which gas is transported to industrial, commercial and domestic users.
Gas imbalance: a discrepancy between a transporter’s receipt and deliveries of natural gas for a shipper.
Gas lift: one of several methods of artificial lift. A mechanical process using the continuous or intermittent injection of a gas into the production conduit (tubing or casing) to aerate or displace the produced fluids. This creates a reduction of the bottom hole pressure of the well, increasing or sustaining the flow rate of the well.
Gas processing: the separation of oil and gas, and the removal of impurities and natural gas liquids from natural gas.
Gas reserves: those quantities of gas which are anticipated to be commercially recovered from known accumulations from a given date forward.
Gas revenue: the product of gas volume times gas price; gross cash flow from sales of gas.
Gas send-out: the total natural gas produced or purchased (including exchange gas receipts), or the net natural gas withdrawn from underground storage within a specified time interval, measured at the point of production, purchase or withdrawal, adjusted for changes in local storage quantity.
Gas treatment: removal of gas phase impurities, such as sulfur compounds, carbon dioxide and water vapor from natural gas.
Gas turbine power plant: a power plant in which the prime mover is a gas turbine. A gas turbine typically consists of an axial-flow compressor which feeds compressed air into one or more combustion chambers where liquid or gaseous fuel is burned. The resulting hot gases are expanded through the turbine, causing it to rotate. The rotating turbine shaft drives the compressors as well as the generator, producing electricity.
Gas well: a well drilled and completed that primarily produces natural gas.
Gas/condensate ratio: for a gas condensate reservoir, the ratio of gas to condensate is reported in scf/bbl. The inverse ratio (condensate-gas ratio, CGR) is also used, and is reported in bbl/mscf.
Gas-to-liquids (GTL): a processing technology that converts natural gas into high-value commodity liquid fuels and blending agents, petrochemical feed stocks and chemicals by changing its chemical structure. GTL produces products that can be easily traded as commodities on world markets.
Gas-to-oil ratio (GOR): the number of standard cubic feet of gas produced per barrel of crude oil or other hydrocarbon liquid. In some parts of the world, the units are cubic meters of gas per cubic meter of liquid produced.
Gathering line: network-like pipeline that transports natural gas from individual wellheads to a compressor station, treating or processing plant, or main trunk transmission line. Gathering lines are generally relatively short in length and smaller in diameter than the gas sales line.
Gigajoule (GJ): a joule is an international unit of energy defined as the energy produced from one watt flowing for one second. A very small unit of energy, there are 3.6 million joules in a kilowatt-hour. For gas, one gigajoule 960 cubic feet under standard temperature and pressure conditions. Roughly, one gigajoule (Gj) = 1 thousand cubic feet; one terajoule (Tj) = 1 million cubic feet; one petajoule (Pj) = 1 billion cubic feet; one exajoule (Ej) = 1 trillion cubic feet.
Gigawatt (GW): a unit of electric power equal to one billion watts, one million kilowatts or one thousand megawatts — enough power to supply the needs of a medium-sized city.
Gigawatt hour (GWh) one billion watt-hours.
Grandfather clause: a clause in a contract which maintains the prior rule or policy where a new rule or policy would otherwise be applicable.
Greenfield LNG facility: a new LNG facility constructed on a new site.
Grid: a network of pipelines through which gas is transported.
Gross freight: freight cost excluding the expenses relating to the running costs of the ship.
Gross gas withdrawal: the full volume of compounds extracted at the wellhead, including non-hydrocarbon gases and natural gas plant liquids.
Gross tonnage: common measurement of the internal volume of a ship determined in accordance with prescribed methods and formulas and expressed in units of 100 cu ft (= 2.83 m3)
Grounding: contact by a ship with the bottom while she is moored or anchored or underway.
Hague rules (1921): adopted by the International Law Association at the Hague Conference in 1921, international code for conditions for the carriage of cargo under a bill of lading.
Harbor dues: various local charges against all seagoing vessels entering a harbor, to cover maintenance of channel depths, buoys, lights, etc.; not all harbors assess this charge.
Hard aground: a vessel that has gone aground and is incapable of refloating under her own power. Also referred to as Hard and Fast.
Heads of Agreement (HOA): a preliminary agreement covering the outline terms for the sale and purchase of LNG or natural gas. See Sales and Purchase Agreement (SPA)
Head station: mainline receipt point on a pipeline.
Heat rate: the measure of efficiency in converting input fuel to electricity. Heat rate is expressed as the number of Btus of fuel (e.g., natural gas) per kilowatt hour (Btu/kWh). Heat rate for power plants depends on the individual plant design, its operating conditions, and its level of electric power output. The lower the heat rate, the more efficient the plant.
Heating value: the amount of heat produced from the complete combustion of a unit quantity of fuel. There are two heating values: the gross (high) and the net (low) heating value. The gross value is that which is obtained when all of the products of combustion are cooled to standard conditions, and the latent heat of the water vapor formed is reclaimed. The net value is the gross value minus the latent heat of vaporization of the water.
Henry Hub: pipeline interchange near Erath, Louisiana, where a number of interstate and intrastate pipelines interconnect through a header system operated by Sabine Pipe Line. It is the standard delivery point for the NYMEX natural gas futures contract in the US, the benchmark natural gas price in the US Gulf Coast.
Hydrocarbon: an organic chemical compound of hydrogen and carbon in gaseous, liquid, or solid phase.