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Debottlenecking
Increasing production capacity of existing facilities through the modification of existing equipment to remove throughput restrictions. Debottlenecking generally increases capacity for a fraction of the cost of building new facilities.

Decommission
To remove from service.

Deep-Water Discovery
An offshore discovery located in at least 600 feet of water.

Delineation Well
A well drilled at a distance from a discovery well to determine the physical extent, reserves and likely production rate of a new oil or gas field.

Derrick
The elongated pyramid of latticed steel mounted over the bore hole for drilling and well-servicing purposes.

Desulfurization
Processes by which sulfur and sulfur compounds are removed from gases or petroleum liquid mixtures.

Development
The phase in which newly discovered or proven oil or gas fields are put into production by drilling and completing production wells.

Development Well
A well drilled with the intent of producing oil or gas from a proven field.

Deviated Well
A well drilled in such a way that its controlled direction departs progressively from the vertical; such wells are drilled in order to reach different parts of a reservoir from a single platform.

Diesel Fuel
The light oil fuel used in diesel and other compression-ignition engines.

Directional Drilling
A technique whereby a well is deliberately deviated from the vertical in order to reach a particular part of a reservoir..

Discovery Well
An exploratory well that finds hydrocarbons.

Distillates
The distillate or middle range of petroleum liquids produced during the processing of crude oil. Products include diesel fuel, heating oil, kerosene and turbine fuel for airplanes.

Distillation
The first stage in the refining process in which crude oil is heated and unfinished petroleum products are initially separated.

Downhole
A term to describe tools, equipment and instruments used in the well bore.

Downhole Safety Valve
A valve fitted into the production tubing of a well some distance below the surface. The valve can be closed in an emergency to stop the flow of oil and gas.

Downstream
The oil industry term used to refer to all petroleum activities from the processing of refining crude oil into petroleum products to the distribution, marketing, and shipping of the products. Phillips’ refining, marketing, and transportation operations (RM&T), as well as Phillips’ 50 percent interest in Chevron Phillips Chemical Company.

Drill Bit
The part of the drilling tool that actually cuts through the rock. Drill bits bore a hole into soil, sand or rock by a combination of crushing and shearing actions. Drill bits used for extra-hard rock are studded with thousands of tiny industrial diamonds, the hardest substances known.

Drill Collars
Devices made of extra-heavy steel tubing mounted just above the drill bit to maintain pressure on the bit and keep the drill string in tension.

Drill String
The long assembly of drill bit, drill collars and many lengths of pipe that is turned by the rotate table and cuts through the rock.

Drilling Mud
A mixture of clays, water and chemicals pumped in and out of the well bore during drilling. Drilling mud provides circulation, flushing rock cuttings from the bottom of the well bore to the surface. It maintains pressure at the bottom of the well bore and cakes the uncased well bore wall to provide some protection against cave-ins. Drilling Platform
An offshore platform used to drill exploration and development wells but lacking the processing facilities of a production platform.

Drilling Rig
The complete machinery and structures needed for drilling a well.

Drilling Table
The turning device on the derrick floor in which the drill string is held and rotated. Also called a rotary table.

Drillship
A ship fitted with a drilling derrick that is used to drill in waters that are too deep for juck-up rigs and semi-submersible rigs

Dry Gas
Natural gas with so little natural gas liquids that it is nearly all methane.

Dry Hole
A well that does not find oil or gas in commercial quantities. Definitions of commercial vary according to the costs of exploration. A shallow well in the old oil patch in the United States might be commercial when it can produce less than 10 barrels of oil per day, while an offshore well might not be commercial unless it produces several thousand barrels of oil per day.

Dual Completion
A well completed to produce from two separate reservoirs.

Dual Discovery
An exploratory well that finds petroleum in two separate reservoirs.

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