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بدضعیفمتوسطخوبعالی (بدون رتبه)
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R

Reactor
A vessel, tank or tower in which a specific chemical reaction takes place.

Recoverable Reserves
That proportion of the oil and/or gas in a reservoir that can be removed using currently available techniques.

Recycling
The process undertaken to regain material for human use. To reuse; to make ready for reuse.

Refinery
A plant used to separate the various components present in crude oil and convert them into usable fuel products or feedstock for other processes.

Refining Margins
The difference in value between the products produced by a refinery and the value of the crude oil used to produce them. Refining margins will thus vary from refinery to refinery and depend on the price and characteristics of the crude used.

Reformulated Gasoline
Reformulated gasoline is a cleaner-burning gasoline that reduces smog and other air pollution. Federal law mandates the sale of reformulated gasoline in metropolitan areas with the worst ozone smog. Some other cities voluntarily require reformulated gasoline.

Reservoir
A porous, permeable sedimentary rock formation containing oil and/or natural gas enclosed or surrounded by layers of less permeable or impervious rock.

Reservoir Characterization
The continuing process of integrating and interpreting geological, geophysical, petrophysical, fluid and performance data to form a unified, consistent description of a reservoir.

Residual Fuel Oil
Very heavy fuel oils produced from the residue from the fractional distillation process rather than from the distilled fractions.

Residue Gas
The gas that remains after natural gas is processed and the liquids removed.

Resin
A solid or semi-solid mixture of organic substances of complex composition having no definite melting point, as in plastic resins made from hydrocarbon feedstocks.

ReVAP
Reduced Volatility Alkylation Process. An environmental innovation that cuts by 60 to 90 percent the airborne hydrogen fluoride (HF) emissions in the event of an accidental release. Phillips and Mobil jointly developed the process in 1994.

Reworking a Well
Restoring a well’s productivity by cleaning out accumulations of sand, silt or other substances that clog the production tubing.

Rig
A structure that contains all the necessary equipment for drilling.

Right-of-way
The strip of land, usually 50 feet wide, that is the route of a pipeline and for which the company pays for the legal right of passage.

Royalty
A share of the revenue from the sale of oil, gas or other natural resources paid to a landowner of grantor of a lease or license.

Royalty Oil
The landowner’s share of net oil production, taken in the form of crude oil rather than in cash.

Ryton
Brand of high-performance resins used in applications requiring resistance to heat or abrasive chemicals, such as automotive components.

S

S Zorb
Phillips’ proprietary sulfur removal technology (SRT). S Zorb SRT for gasoline can reduce sulfur levels to 5 parts per million for some feedstocks, which more than meets the EPA’s new standard of 30 ppm. A new plant at Phillips’ Borger refinery has demonstrated that S Zorb SRT can remove 99 percent or more of the sulfur from gasoline, and potentially diesel, streams. S Zorb SRT for diesel is in development.

Satellite Platform
An offshore structure that depends on another platform for materials or services.

Secondary Recovery
Enhanced recovery of oil or gas from a reservoir beyond the oil or gas that can be recovered by normal flowing and pumping operations. Secondary recovery techniques involve maintaining or enhancing reservoir pressure by injecting water, gas or other substances into the formation. See also enhanced recovery and tertiary recovery..

Seismic Exploration
An exploration technique involving the use of seismic methods.

Seismic Survey
A technique for determining the detailed structure of the rocks underlying a particular area by passing acoustic shock waves into the strata and detecting and measuring the reflected signals.

Semi-submersible Rig
A floating drilling installation that is supported by underwater pontoons; generally used for exploration purposes only.

Service Well
A well that does not produce oil or gas but that is used to inject liquids or gas into the main producing formation for such purposes as pressure maintenance, enhanced recovery, and storage or subsurface disposal of salt water and other substances.

Sidetrack Drilling
A remedial operation that results in the creation of a new section of well bore for the purpose of detouring around “junk,” redrilling a lost hole or straightening crooked holes.

Sour Crude
Crude oil with a high sulfur content.

Sour Gas
Natural or associated gas with a high sulfur content.

Specialty Chemical
A chemical made in a relatively small quantity for a particular application.

Specific Gravity
A measure of the density of a material usually obtained by comparing it with water.

Spot Market
The trading in crude oil and petroleum products that occurs in international commerce, setting the prices that are widely published. Most crude moves from producer to refiner under long-term contracts, so only a small fraction of the world’s petroleum is priced and traded on the spot market.

Spud
To start the actual drilling of a well.

Stripper Well
An oil well that produces a limited amount of oil, usually no more than 10 barrels a day.

Subsalt
Refers to rock formations lying beneath long, horizontal layers of salt. These rock formations may contain hydrocarbons.

Sub-sea Wellhead
A wellhead installed on the sea floor and controlled remotely from a platform, a floating production facility or land.

Subsidence
The settling or sinking of a surface as a result of the loss of support from underlying soils or strata.

Substructure
The support form of an offshore installation on which the derrick, engines, quarters, helicopter pad, cranes, etc. are installed.

Supply Chain Management
The interlocking series of transactions necessary to convert crude oil into marketable products.

Suspended Discovery
An oil or gas field identified by a discovery well but not being produced or developed.

Sweet Crude
Crude oil with a low sulfur content.

Sweet Gas
A natural gas that contains little sulfur.

Syngas
A synthetic gas fuel.

Synthetic Fuels
Burnable energy fluids made from coals or other hydrocarbon-containing substances.

Synthetic Natural Gas
Gases made from coals and other hydrocarbon-containing substances.

Synthetic Oils
Liquid fuels made from hydrocarbon- containing substances, including tar sands, plus animal and vegetable oils that are used as lubricants.

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