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بدضعیفمتوسطخوبعالی (بدون رتبه)
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Accommodation Platform/Rig
An offshore platform, or semi-submersible rig, built or adapted to provide living quarters for drilling and production personnel.

Acreage
Land leased for oil and gas exploration and development; usually descriptive of more than one lease.

Additive
A term used generally to indicate special chemicals that may be added to products to improve their characteristics.

Air Drilling
A rotary drilling technique in which compressed air is used instead of fluids to circulate, or bring to the surface, bits of rock and other cuttings from the drill bit.

Air Injection
An enhanced recovery technique in which air is injected into the petroleum formation to increase reservoir pressure.

Air Lift
A production technique in which an air balance beam pumping unit is used to lift oil to the surface.

Alkylation
A refining process for converting light, gaseous olefins into high-octane gasoline components (the reverse of cracking).

Alloy
A composition of two or more metals.

Annulus
The space between the drill string and the earthen wall of the well bore, or between the production tubing and the casing.

API Gravity
The universally accepted scale adopted by the American Petroleum Institute (API) for expressing the density of liquid petroleum products. The higher the API gravity, the lighter the oil.

Appraisal Drilling
Drilling carried out following the discovery of a new field to determine the physical extent, amount of reserves and likely production rate of the field.

Appraisal Well
A well drilled as part of an appraisal drilling program.

ARDS
The refiner’s shorthand for “atmospheric residual desulfurization,” a refining process that removes sulfur from oils.

Aromatics
Class of hydrocarbons that have at least one benzene ring as part of their structure. Generally describes benzene and benzene derivatives. These products are used as components of unleaded gasoline and as feed stocks for petrochemicals such as cyclohexane and paraxylene, both of which are used in end products like nylons and polyesters.

Artificial Drives
Techniques for producing oil after depletion or in lieu of natural drives; includes waterflooding, natural gas reinjection, inert gas injection, flue gas injection and in-situ combustion.

Artificial Lift
Any of the techniques, other than natural drives, for bringing oil to the surface.

Associated Gas
Natural gas found in association with oil, either dissolved in the oil or as a cap of free gas above the oil.

Associated Liquids
Liquid hydrocarbons found in association with natural gas.

Aviation Gasoline
High-performance petroleum fuels made specifically for piston engine, propeller- driven airplanes.

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Barge
Non-self-propelled marine vessel used as cargo tankers, equipment and supply carriers, crane platforms and support and accommodation bases in offshore drilling, and as submarine pipe-laying vessels.

Barrel
As the standard unit of measurement of liquids in the petroleum industry, it contains 42 U.S. standard gallons. Abbreviated to “bbl.”

Barrel of Oil Equivalent (BOE)
BOE = gas volumes divided by six and added to crude and natural gas volumes.

Basement Rock
The ancient rock that lies below sedimentary strata; it does not contain oil or gas.

Bedrock
The firm base rock to which is anchored the geological structure of interest to petroleum geologists.

Benzene
An aromatic hydrocarbon present to a minor degree in most crude oils. Some important products manufactured from benzene are styrene, phenol, nylon and synthetic detergents.

Blending
The technique of combining two or more petroleum liquids to produce a product with specific characteristics.

Block
A geographical area that includes several separate oil and gas license tracts.

Block Leases
A contract with diverse owners of separately leased oil and gas tracts that enables an oil company to drill one or two test wells instead of one well per tract.

Block Number
The numerical designation assigned to offshore lease and license tracts, or subdivisions of the tracts.

Blow Molding
A plastics-forming process that uses compressed air to shape the final product by expanding it to fit the mold.

Booster
A pump system installed to maintain or increase pressure in pipelines so that liquids and gases keep flowing.

BOPD/BPD
Barrels of oil per day; barrels per day.

Bottom Out
To reach the objective depth in drilling a well.

Bottoms
The heavy portions, or fractions, of a crude oil that do not vaporize during distillation; the accumulation of sediments, mud and water in the bottoms of lease tanks.

Bottom-hole Assembly
The components, together as a group, that make up the lower end of the drill string – comprising the drill bit, drill collars, drill pipe and ancillary equipment.

Butadiene
A butane derivative that is one of the most widely used raw materials used in the manufacture of synthetic rubber.

Butane
Refers usually to a mixture of isobutane and normal butane. A flammable, gaseous hydrocarbon. Used as fuel.

Bypass
A pipe connected around a valve or other control mechanism in a flow line for the purpose of maintaining flow during adjustments or repair work.

By-product
A substance obtained incidentally during the manufacture or production of some other substance.

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