A vehicle designed to operate solely on one alternative fuel.
A complex mixture of hydrocarbons with a boiling range between approximately 350 and 650 degrees Fahrenheit. Diesel fuel (simply referred to as “diesel”) is composed primarily of paraffins and naphthenic compounds that auto-ignite from the heat of compression in a diesel engine. Diesel is used mainly by heavy-duty road vehicles, construction equipment, locomotives, and by marine and stationary engines.
A vehicle designed to operate on a combination of alternative fuel, such as LNG or LPG, and conventional fuel, such as gasoline or diesel. These vehicles have two separate fuel systems which inject both fuels simultaneously into the engine combustion chamber.
A fuel containing a mixture of 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline.
A fuel containing a mixture of 95 percent ethanol and 5 percent gasoline.
The inverse of energy intensiveness: the ratio of energy outputs from a process to the energy inputs (for example, miles traveled per gallon of fuel).
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
A government agency, established in 1970. Its responsibilities include the regulation of fuels and fuel additives.
Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE), (CH3)3COC2H5
A colorless, flammable, oxygenated hydrocarbon blend stock formed by the catalytic etherification of isobutylene with ethanol.
Otherwise known as ethyl alcohol, alcohol, or grain-spirit. A clear, colorless, flammable oxygenated hydrocarbon with a boiling point of 78.5 degrees Celsius in the anhydrous state. However, it forms a binary azeotrope with water, with a boiling point of 78.15 degrees Celsius at a composition of 95.57 percent by weight ethanol. It is used in the United States as a gasoline octane enhancer and oxygenate (10 percent concentration). Ethanol can also be used in high concentrations in vehicles optimized for its use.
The family name applied to a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and which are characterized by an oxygen atom attached to two carbon atoms (for example, methyl tertiary butyl ether).
A vehicle with the ability to operate on alternative fuels (such as M85 or E85), 100 percent traditional fuels, or a mixture of alternative fuel and traditional fuels.
The theoretical escalation of global temperatures caused by the greenhouse effect.
A popular term used to describe the roles of water vapor, carbon dioxide, and other trace gases in keeping the Earth’s surface warmer than it would be otherwise. These radiatively active gases are relatively transparent to incoming shortwave radiation, but are relatively opaque to outgoing long wave radiation. The latter radiation, which would otherwise escape to space, is trapped by these gases within the lower levels of the atmosphere. The subsequent reradiation of some of the energy back to the Earth maintains the surface at temperatures higher than they would be if the gases were absent.
Those gases, such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, tropospheric ozone, nitrous oxide, and methane, that are transparent to solar radiation but opaque to long wave radiation. Their action is similar to that of increased humidity in a greenhouse. Gross Vehicle Weight Rating: The weight of the empty vehicle plus the maximum anticipated load weight.
Heavy Duty Vehicles
Pursuant to the EPACT, trucks and buses having a gross vehicle weight rating of 8,500 pounds or more.
The lightest of all gases, the element (hydrogen) occurs chiefly in combination with oxygen in water. It also exists in acids, bases, alcohols, petroleum, and other hydrocarbons.