کتاب تست بتن در سازه ها

بدضعیفمتوسطخوبعالی (5٫00 از 5)
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کتاب مفیدی در رابطه با تست بتن در سازه ها (Testing of Concrete in Structures ) دارای فصل های مختلف شامل انواع آزمایشاتی که بر روی بتن مصرفی در سازه ها مورد استفاده قرار می گیرد.

برای دانلود مستقیم این کتاب بسیار مفید بصورت لینک مستقیم از سایت ایران پتروتک اینجا کلیک کنید

پسورد فایل: www.iranpetrotech.com

فصل های مختلف کتاب :

Preface x

1 Planning and interpretation of in-situ testing 1

1.1 Aims of in-situ testing 1

1.1.1 Compliance with specification 2

1.1.2 Assessment of in-situ quality and integrity 3

1.2 Guidance available from standards and other

documents 5

1.3 Test methods available 6

1.4 Test programme planning 8

1.4.1 General sequential approach 8

1.4.2 Visual inspection 8

1.4.3 Test selection 12

1.4.4 Number and location of tests 15

1.5 In-situ concrete variability 17

1.5.1 Within-member variability 18

1.5.2 In-situ strength relative to standard specimens 21

1.6 Interpretation 23

1.6.1 Computation of test results 23

1.6.2 Examination of variability 23

1.6.3 Calibration and application of test results 26

1.7 Test combinations 32

1.7.1 Increasing confidence level of results 32

1.7.2 Improvement of calibration accuracy 32

1.7.3 Use of one method as preliminary to another 33

1.7.4 Test calibration 33

1.7.5 Diagnosis of causes of deterioration 33

1.8 Documentation by standards 35

2 Surface hardness methods 36

2.1 Rebound test equipment and operation 36

2.2 Procedure 39

vi Contents

2.3 Theory, calibration and interpretation 40

2.3.1 Factors influencing test results 40

2.3.2 Calibration 45

2.3.3 Interpretation 46

2.3.4 Applications and limitations 48

3 Ultrasonic pulse velocity methods 51

3.1 Theory of pulse propagation through concrete 52

3.2 Pulse velocity equipment and use 53

3.2.1 Equipment 53

3.2.2 Use 55

3.3 Test calibration and interpretation of results 60

3.3.1 Strength calibration 61

3.3.2 Practical factors influencing measured

results 63

3.4 Applications 72

3.4.1 Laboratory applications 73

3.4.2 In-situ applications 73

3.5 Reliability and limitations 81

4 Partially destructive strength tests 82

4.1 Penetration resistance testing 82

4.1.1 Windsor probe 83

4.1.2 Pin penetration test 93

4.2 Pull-out testing 93

4.2.1 Cast-in methods 94

4.2.2 Drilled-hole methods 101

4.3 Pull-off methods 111

4.4 Break-off methods 116

4.4.1 Norwegian method 116

4.4.2 Stoll tork test 118

4.4.3 Shearing-rib method 119

5 Cores 120

5.1 General procedures for core cutting and

testing 120

5.1.1 Core location and size 120

5.1.2 Drilling 122

5.1.3 Testing 124

5.2 Interpretation of results 128

5.2.1 Factors influencing measured core compressive

strength 128

5.2.2 Estimation of cube strength 131

5.2.3 Reliability, limitations and applications 133

Contents vii

5.3 Small cores 135

5.3.1 Influence of specimen size 136

5.3.2 Reliability, limitations and applications 138

6 Load testing and monitoring 140

6.1 In-situ load testing 141

6.1.1 Testing procedures 141

6.1.2 Load application techniques 144

6.1.3 Measurement and interpretation 149

6.1.4 Reliability, limitations and applications 155

6.2 Monitoring 157

6.2.1 Monitoring during construction 157

6.2.2 Long-term monitoring 157

6.3 Strain measurement techniques 163

6.3.1 Methods available 164

6.3.2 Selection of methods 170

6.4 Ultimate load testing 170

6.4.1 Testing procedures and measurement

techniques 171

6.4.2 Reliability, interpretation and applications 174

7 Durability tests 176

7.1 Corrosion of reinforcement and prestressing steel 176

7.1.1 Electromagnetic cover measurement 179

7.1.2 Half-cell or rest-potential measurement 185

7.1.3 Resistivity measurements 191

7.1.4 Direct measurement of corrosion rate 195

7.2 Moisture measurement 201

7.2.1 Simple methods 201

7.2.2 Neutron moisture gauges 202

7.2.3 Electrical methods 202

7.2.4 Microwave absorption 204

7.3 Absorption and permeability tests 206

7.3.1 Initial surface absorption test 208

7.3.2 Figg air and water permeability tests 212

7.3.3 Combined ISAT and Figg methods 215

7.3.4 Germann Gas permeability test 215

7.3.5 Autoclam permeability system 215

7.3.6 Other non-intrusive water and air methods 216

7.3.7 Flow tests 217

7.3.8 BS absorption test 218

7.3.9 Sorptivity test 219

7.3.10 Capillary rise test 220

7.4 Tests for alkaliaggregate reaction 220

viii Contents

7.5 Tests for freezethaw resistance 221

7.6 Abrasion resistance testing 221

8 Performance and integrity tests 223

8.1 Infrared thermography 223

8.2 Radar 225

8.2.1 Radar systems 226

8.2.2 Structural applications and limitations 229

8.3 Dynamic response testing 236

8.3.1 Simple non-instrumented approaches 236

8.3.2 Pulse-echo techniques 237

8.3.3 Analysis of surface waves 243

8.3.4 Testing large-scale structures 244

8.4 Radiography and radiometry 244

8.4.1 X-ray radiography 245

8.4.2 Gamma radiography 246

8.4.3 Gamma radiometry 247

8.5 Holographic and acoustic emission techniques 249

8.5.1 Holographic techniques 249

8.5.2 Acoustic emission 250

8.6 Photoelastic methods 253

8.7 Maturity and temperature-matched curing 253

8.7.1 Maturity measurements 254

8.7.2 Temperature-matched curing 257

8.8 Screed soundness tester 258

8.9 Tests for fire damage 258

9 Chemical testing and allied techniques 261

9.1 Sampling and reporting 262

9.1.1 Sampling 262

9.1.2 Reporting 263

9.2 Cement content and aggregate/cement ratio 264

9.2.1 Theory 264

9.2.2 Procedures 264

9.2.3 Reliability and interpretation of

results 268

9.3 Original water content 269

9.3.1 Theory 269

9.3.2 Procedure 270

9.3.3 Reliability and interpretation of results 271

9.4 Cement type and cement replacements 272

9.4.1 Theory 272

9.4.2 Procedures 272

9.4.3 Reliability and interpretation of results 274

Contents ix

9.5 Aggregate type and grading 274

9.5.1 Aggregate type 274

9.5.2 Aggregate grading 275

9.6 Sulfate determination 275

9.7 Chloride determination 277

9.7.1 Procedures 277

9.7.2 Reliability and interpretation of results 282

9.8 Alkali reactivity tests 284

9.8.1 Alkali content 284

9.8.2 Alkali immersion test 284

9.9 Admixtures 285

9.10 Carbonation 285

9.11 Microscopic methods 287

9.11.1 Surface examination by reflected light 287

9.11.2 Thin-section methods 289

9.12 Thermoluminescence testing 290

9.12.1 Theory 290

9.12.2 Equipment and procedure 291

9.12.3 Reliability, limitations and applications 291

9.13 Specialized instrumental methods 292

9.13.1 X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy 292

9.13.2 Differential thermal methods 292

9.13.3 Thermogravimetry, X-ray diffraction, infrared

and atomic absorption spectrometry and

scanning electron microscopy 293

Appendix A Typical cases of test planning and interpretation of

results 295

A1 28-day cubes fail (cube results suspect) 295

A2 28-day cubes fail (cube results genuine) 298

A3 Cubes non-existent for new structure 299

A4 Cubes damaged for new structure 301

A5 Cubes non-existent for existing structure 301

A6 Surface cracking 302

A7 Reinforcement corrosion 303

Appendix B Examples of pulse velocity corrections for

reinforcement 305

Appendix C Example of evaluation of core results 309

References 312

Index 334

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